Hsin-Chieh Kung1, Bo-Wun Huang3, Chien-Er Huang2,3, Nicholas Kiprotich Cheruiyot  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2

1 Institute of Environmental Toxin and Emerging-Contaminant Research, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
2 Center for Environmental Toxin and Emerging-Contaminant Research, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
3 Department of Mechanical and Institute of Mechatronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan


Received: November 3, 2023
Revised: December 24, 2023
Accepted: December 25, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230262  


Cite this article:

Kung, H.C., Huang, B.W., Huang, C.E., Cheruiyot, N.K., Chang-Chien, G.P. (2024). Concurrent Extraction and Analysis of Atmospheric Particulate Matter-bound PBDEs, PAHs, Nitrated PAHs, and OPEs. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230262. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230262


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Microwave extraction was used to concurrently extract 4 compounds from a PM sample.
  • Most of the detected values were within 30% of the reported values of SRM samples.
  • The recoveries of the reproducibility studies were all within the acceptable range.
  • The method is fast and reliable for concurrent extraction of multiple pollutants.
 

ABSTRACT


This study aimed to develop and validate a robust method for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (N-PAHs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs) bound to atmospheric particulate matter. These compounds are widely distributed pollutants known to have detrimental effects on both human health and the environment. The concurrent microwave extraction took a total of 40 minutes and utilized n-hexane:acetone:dichloromethane (2:2:1 v/v). After a series of cleanup and fractionation steps involving silica gel and alumina columns, PBDEs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS), while PAHs, N-PAHs, and OPEs were analyzed using GC-MS/MS. The detected values of the SRM samples (n = 4) were all within 30%, except for 3 N-PAH congeners. The recovery rates for the spiked concentrations (n = 5) were 82.2% ± 8.7%–122% ± 4.4% for PBDEs, 84.2% ± 9.9%–115% ± 17.4% for PAHs, 83.2% ± 2.2%–111% ± 2.5% for N-PAHs, and 93.9% ± 5.3%–111% ± 10.7% for OPEs. These results support the robustness and reliability of the method. The developed method was then applied to real atmospheric PM samples collected from five locations in and around an industrial park in Taiwan during the winter months. Atmospheric PM concentrations ranged from 39.1 to 68.9 µg m–3, with PM-bound OPEs having the highest concentrations (432–2815 pg m–3), followed by PAHs (503–1774 pg m–3), N-PAHs (39.1–277 pg m–3), and PBDEs (5.07–13.6 pg m–3). This method provides a reliable and fast approach to extracting and analyzing multiple compounds from a single atmospheric PM sample. The research contributes significantly to the ongoing efforts to address the critical issue of air pollution.


Keywords: GC-MS/MS, HRGC-HRMS, Microwave extraction, Simultaneous extraction




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