Special Issue on Carbonaceous Aerosols in the Atmosphere (II)

Akshat Jain1, Anirudha Ambekar1,2, Thaseem Thajudeen This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2,3 

1 School of Mechanical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Goa, Farmagudi, Ponda - 403401, Goa, India
2 Center of Excellence in Combustion Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Goa, Farmagudi, Ponda - 403401, Goa, India
3 Center of Excellence in Particulates, Colloids and Interfaces, Indian Institute of Technology Goa, Farmagudi, Ponda - 403401, Goa, India

Received: November 17, 2023
Revised: February 28, 2024
Accepted: March 4, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230281  

Cite this article:

Jain, A., Ambekar, A., Thajudeen, T. (2024). Effect of Titania Nano-additives on Fine and Ultrafine Carbonaceous Emissions during Flame Combustion of Diesel. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230281. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230281


  • Size distribution of dispersed nanoparticles to study the shelf-life of nanofuel.
  • Reduction in particulate matter emissions using Titania nano-additives.
  • Enhancement in ultra-fine particles due to the evolution of Titania nanoparticles.
  • Role of the morphology of dispersed nanoparticles in emissions reduction.
  • Experimental investigations of the sub-23 nm particle emissions.


The severe impacts of emissions from combustion necessitate the need for advanced mitigation techniques. This study focuses on experimentally investigating the change in particulate matter (PM) emissions during the flame combustion of diesel blended with varying quantities of titania (TiO2) nano-additives. The initial observations using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer showed a reduction in the total number concentration (TNC) of PM emissions for TiO2-nanofuel samples compared to diesel. However, detailed investigations revealed the enhancement in the TNC of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) with mobility diameters less than 100 nm. This indicates the possibility of the emission of nano-additives during flame combustion, which enhances the number concentration of UFPs. The evolution of TiO2 nanoparticles is validated by performing the elemental composition analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy after sampling the PM emissions. A detailed experimental study also revealed the significance of the size and stability of the dispersed nanoparticles in the overall emissions. Ball milling (BM) was used for the size reduction of dispersed nanoparticles to enhance the dispersibility of the nano-additives. BM, when combined with bath-sonication (BS), resulted in the highest reduction in the TNC (37.70% for Ti100 BM-BS, 48.46% for Ti150 BM-BS, and 53.27% for Ti200 BM-BS), highlighting the importance of size of the dispersed nanoparticles. The detailed analysis of UFPs showed an increase in the TNC of particulates in sub-23 nm (22.92% for Ti100 BS, and 39.16% for Ti100 BM) and super ultra-fine (96.46% for Ti100 BS, 100.83% for Ti100 BM, and 16.73% for Ti100 BM-BS) regions for nanofuel samples in contrast to neat diesel.

Keywords: Ball milling, Combustion aerosols, Nano-additives, Particle size distribution, Ultra-fine particles

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