Soyeon Lee1, Jongmin Park1, Myoungho Lee1, Minjung Kim1, Boowook Kim2, Kiyoung Lee1,2, Kyungduk Zoh1,2, Chungsik Yoon This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2 

1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2 Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea


Received: October 18, 2023
Revised: February 27, 2024
Accepted: March 13, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230250  


Cite this article:

Lee, S., Park, J., Lee, M., Kim, M., Kim, B., Lee, K., Zoh, K., Yoon, C. (2024). Evaluation of Airborne Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Three Types of Mosquito Repellents. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230250. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230250


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Mosquito repellents emit large amounts of particulate matter and VOCs.
  • Emissions are largest from coil repellents, followed by liquid and mat repellents.
  • When using mosquito repellent, frequent ventilation can reduce the exposure risk.
 

ABSTRACT


This study investigates the emissions from various mosquito repellents, focusing on particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PM was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and optical particle spectrometer (OPS) in an exposure chamber; VOCs were collected with Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. SMPS measurements in the range of 10–420 nm showed that the coil-types had the highest concentration (13,048 particles cm3), followed by the mat-types (119 particles cm3), and liquid-types (42 particles cm3). However, the percentage of nanoparticles was highest in the liquid-type (50%), followed by the mat (46%) and coil-types (33%) (p < 0.05). According to the OPS measurements, covering a range of 0.3–10 µm, showed the highest value for the coil-types (4,096 particles cm3), with similar values for the mat and liquid-types (13 particles cm3 each). The percentage of particles < 2.5 µm in size, which can easily enter the lower respiratory tract, was 82–99%. Coil types burn at a much faster rate (29.31 mg min–1) than liquid (1.89 mg min–1) and mat types (1.30 mg min–1), indicating a more intense combustion process. Coil types also lead in emission rates (1.94 × 1010 particles min–1 for 10–420 nm) releasing more particles per minute, followed by liquid (1.87 × 108 particles min–1) and then mat types (6.34 × 107 particles min–1), suggesting higher particulate emissions during use. When normalized by usage weight, Coil types again show the highest emission factors (6.59 × 1011 particles g–1), implying they emit more particles per gram of product burned than liquid (1.82 × 1011 particles g–1) and mat (4.81 × 1010 particles g–1) types. The study highlights the need for comprehensive understanding of repellent emissions due to their potential health impacts.


Keywords: Mosquito repellent, Emission factor, Emission rate, PM, VOCs




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