Darmansyah Darmansyah1,2, Sheng-Jie You2,3, Ya-Fen Wang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2,4 

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
3 Center for Environmental Risk Management, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
4 Sustainable Environmental Education Center, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan

Received: October 15, 2023
Revised: December 22, 2023
Accepted: January 14, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230247  

Cite this article:

Darmansyah, D., You, S.J., Wang, Y.F. (2024). Modification of Recycled Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash as a Low-cost Catalyst for NOx Removal. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230247. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230247


  • Recycled of fly ash as a low-cost catalyst for NOx removal has been investigated.
  • The parameters influencing NOx removal efficiency were thoroughly examined.
  • Over 90% of NOx removal can be achieved using the FA/Zr-10% catalyst.
  • The mechanism of the catalytic oxidation reactions was analyzed and explored.


Fly ash is solid waste from incinerators that contains complex compounds that have great potential to synthesize valuable materials. This study devises synthesizing a low-cost catalyst from recycled fly ash using a combination of metal oxides (ZrO2, TiO2, and MgO) to remove NOx. This study also investigated the impact of various factors on the synergetic purification of NOx as an air pollution emission. Microscopic characterization showed that increasing the composition of metal oxides can increase the specific surface area of fly ash, crystallinity, binding energy, and the dispersion of metal oxides into the fly ash, favoring the adsorption and the oxidation of NOx onto the surface-modified fly ash catalysts. The NOx removal in raw fly ash (RFA) at 25°C is 10.39%, increasing to 90.3% in the modified fly ash catalyst (FA/Zr-10%) at 250°C. The modified fly ash catalysts can reduce catalyst costs for NOx removal by one-ninth, and the operating temperature is about 10–15% lower than conventional catalysts. In summary, industrial solid waste incineration fly ash holds excellent potential when modified with metal oxides, serving as an economical and highly efficient catalyst for NOx removal.

Keywords: Fly ash, Low-cost catalysts, NOx removal, Selective catalytic reduction, Surface-modified fly ash catalysts

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