Cong-Thanh Tran  1,4, Le My Thuan Nguyen4, Tzong-Gang Wu2, Chang-Fu Wu  2,3, To Thi Hien4, Kuo-Liong Chien This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,3 

1 Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
2 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
3 Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
4 University of Science, Viet Nam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

Received: August 19, 2023
Revised: November 4, 2023
Accepted: January 15, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Cite this article:

Tran, C.T. Nguyen, L.M.T., Wu, T.G., Wu, C.F., Hien, T.T., Chien, K.L. (2024). Co-effects of COVID-19 and Meteorology on PM2.5 Decrease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Comparison of 2016–2019 and 2020–2021. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230186.


  • Significant downward short-term trend in PM2.5 in Ho Chi Minh City, 2016−2021.
  • Noticeable co-effects of COVID-19 restrictions and meteorology on PM2.5 decrease.
  • PM2.5 decrease by 18% during the COVID-19 period compared with 2016−2019.
  • PM2.5 decrease by 13% in 2018 due to meteorological factors compared with 2016−2019.
  • Half of the days of the COVID-19 period still had PM2.5 exceeding the WHO’s standard.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) measures during 2020–2021 may lead to a downward trend of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), which is one of the most air-polluted cities in Vietnam. This study aimed to compare PM2.5 variations during the COVID-19 period (2020–2021) with a short-term trend of PM2.5 (2016–2019) in HCMC in conjunction with meteorological conditions. Five fixed-site locations were chosen to monitor PM2.5 concentrations by using low-cost particulate matter sensors (Purple Air II-SD) in five urban districts of HCMC from December 2019 to March 2021. This study also collected hourly PM2.5 concentrations from the United States Consulate General HCMC and meteorological variables (i.e., wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and relative humidity) from the weather station at Tan Son Nhat International Airport, 2016–2021. PM2.5 concentrations of the COVID-19 period in HCMC were notably less than those of the 2016–2019 period by 18%. However, about half of the days during this period still had daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's standard of 15 µg m–3. Besides the impacts of COVID-19 restrictions on the PM2.5 decrease, noticeable co-effects of meteorological variables on the decline of PM2.5 in HCMC were also observed in the rainy season and with the west-south-west monsoon wind direction. Wind speed and air temperature substantially contributed to PM2.5 reductions in Bayesian multiple linear regression models. In conclusion, the large decrease of PM2.5 concentrations during the unprecedented period of COVID-19 pandemic gave us a better chance to more fully comprehend the PM2.5 pollution status in HCMC for future reference.

Keywords: Air pollution, Coronavirus, Weather conditions, Low-cost sensors, Bayesian

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