Special Issue on Carbonaceous Aerosols in the Atmosphere (III)

Anuja Samal1, Saroj Kumar Sahu  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Ashirbad Mishra2, Poonam Mangaraj3, Shantanu Kumar Pani  4, Gufran Beig5

1 Environmental Science, Utkal University, India
2 Department of Environmental Science, Berhampur University, India
3 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan
4 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan
5 National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science-Campus, India

Received: September 21, 2023
Revised: March 22, 2024
Accepted: March 22, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230204  

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Cite this article:

Samal, A., Sahu, S.K., Mishra, A., Mangaraj, P., Pani, S.K., Beig, G. (2024). Assessment and Quantification of Methane Emission from Indian Livestock and Manure Management. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230204. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.230204


  • Methane emission from Indian livestock is estimated to be 12.74 Tg yr1.
  • 100 out of 721 districts contributes nearly ~40% of total methane.
  • Utter Pradesh state shares the largest contribution to methane from livestock.
  • Non-dairy cattle produce more methane emissions than dairy cattle.


Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant organic trace gases in the atmosphere having a strong global warming potential of 28 in 100 years, is a significant GHGs, and has a vital role in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. India is home to the largest number of livestock in the world and is responsible for higher methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management. In the present study, the methane emissions from Indian livestock, i.e., enteric fermentation, is estimated to be 11.63 Tg yr–1 in 2019 using IPCC methodology and recent census livestock activity data from the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Government of India, and corresponding country-specific revised emission factors. The CH4 emissions from livestock manure management system is found to be 1.11 Tg yr–1, resulting in 12.74 Tg yr1 of CH4 emission from the Indian livestock sector. The district-level spatial CH4 emission pattern is developed to identify the potential emission hotspots across the country. Initial findings suggest that changing livestock population patterns plays an important role in governing methane emissions in rural India. The information generated could be important tools for policymakers to control CH4 emissions across the country.

Keywords: Methane emission, Livestock, Manure, Emission hotspots, Greenhouse gases

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