Nani Cholianawati  1, Tiin Sinatra1, Ginaldi Ari Nugroho1, Didin Agustian Permadi2, Asri Indrawati1, Halimurrahman1, Meta Kallista3, Moch Syarif Romadhon1, Ilma Fauziah Ma’ruf1, Dipo Yudhatama1, Tesalonika Angela Putri Madethen1, Asif Awaludin  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,3 

1 Research Center for Climate and Atmosphere, National Research and Innovation Agency, Bandung 40135, Indonesia
2 Environmental Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Nasional Bandung, Bandung 40124, Indonesia
3 Computer Engineering Department, School of Electrical Engineering, Telkom University, Kab Bandung 40257, Indonesia

Received: September 17, 2023
Revised: January 9, 2024
Accepted: January 9, 2024

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Cholianawati, N., Sinatra, T., Nugroho, G.A., Agustian Permadi, D., Indrawati, A., Halimurrahman, Kallista, M., Romadhon, M.S., Ma’ruf, I.F., Yudhatama, D., Madethen, T.A.P., Awaludin, A. (2024). Diurnal and Daily Variations of PM2.5 and its Multiple-Wavelet Coherence with Meteorological Variables in Indonesia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 24, 230158.


  • The diurnal patterns of metropolitans are unimodal, while urbans are bimodal.
  • The combination of four meteorological factors shows a more substantial influence.
  • Haze pollution periods in Jakarta and Surabaya are around 210–394 days.
  • Biomass burning raises PM2.5 substantially and influences its diurnal pattern.


PM2.5 is a fine particle that has adverse health effects. Characterizing the diurnal variations and the influence of meteorology is critical for understanding the drivers of air pollution and planning effective mitigation strategies. We studied the diurnal variation of PM2.5 and its relationship with meteorological variables in seven cities representing Indonesia’s three different rainfall patterns during 2021. We used half-hourly PM2.5 concentrations obtained by air quality monitoring system (AQMS), planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) estimation from radiosonde, and meteorological parameters from meteorological stations. A bimodal pattern with two peaks appears in Padang, Manado, Palu, and Pangkalpinang, while in Jakarta, Surabaya, and Pontianak, the diurnals have a unimodal pattern with one peak at night until morning. All cities generally present higher diurnal PM2.5 concentrations in the dry season than in the wet season. The relationship between PM2.5 concentration and PBLH shows Jakarta, Surabaya, Padang, and Pontianak have a strong anti-correlation for different seasons, while the unusual positive correlation occurs in Padang. The Pearson correlation between PM2.5 concentration with each meteorological factor is significant in monthly data and insignificant in daily data. Implementation of Multiple Wavelet Coherence (MWC) with various meteorological variables reveals that the combination of four parameters provides a stronger influence on the PM2.5 concentration in all the observed locations. Wavelet analysis also observes distinct scale periods that represent higher haze concentrations in Jakarta and Surabaya from May to September. Meanwhile, the investigation on the extreme rise of PM2.5 in Pontianak due to peatland forest fires using HYSPLIT shows that emission from the surrounding area significantly raises the maximum half-hourly in Pontianak to 700 µg m–3.

Keywords: PM2.5, Diurnal variation, Meteorological factor, Multiple-wavelet coherence, Indonesia

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