Young Won Lee1, Yong Pyo Kim1, Min Ju Yeo This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2 

1 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
2 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 003760, Korea

Received: March 23, 2023
Revised: March 23, 2023
Accepted: April 24, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Cite this article:

Lee, Y.W., Kim, Y.P., Yeo, M.J. (2023). Estimation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Heavy Industry Sector in North Korea. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • Building materials industry were the largest emitter in the equivalent heavy industries.
  • Equivalent heavy industries NOx emission comprised 124% of the EDGARv5.0 total value.
  • Geographically, NOx emissions were concentrated in the western part of North Korea.


This study aims to estimate the amount of air pollutants emitted from heavy industrial facilities in North Korea. The heavy industry sector in North Korea was classified according to the South Korean definition, and the air pollutant emissions that it generated were estimated for 2017. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx) by the heavy industry sector in North Korea were 22, 73, and 31%, respectively, of those in South Korea’ air pollutant emissions. Moreover, the CO, NOx, and SOx emissions comprised 0.6, 124, and 24%, respectively, of the total air pollutant emission in North Korea estimated from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 5.0 (EDGAR v5.0). Geographically, the NOx emissions were concentrated in the western part of North Korea, while CO and SOx were concentrated in North Hamgyong Province.

Keywords: North Korea, heavy industry, air pollutant emissions

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