Special issue in honor of Prof. David Y.H. Pui for his “50 Years of Contribution in Aerosol Science and Technology”

Arup Bhattacharya1, Mohammad Saleh Nikoopayan Tak2, Shervin Shoai-Naini, Fred Betz3, Ehsan Mousavi This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2 

1 Bert S. Turner Department of Construction Management, College of Engineering, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
2 Nieri Family Department of Construction Development, and Planning, College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities, Clemson, SC, USA
3 Affiliate Engineers Incorporation, Madison, WI, USA

Received: November 20, 2022
Revised: April 2, 2023
Accepted: May 5, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220407  

Cite this article:

Bhattacharya, A., Nikoopayan Tak, M.S., Shoai-Naini, S., Betz, F., Mousavi, E. (2023). A Systematic Literature Review of Cleanroom Ventilation and Air Distribution Systems. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220407


  • A systematic literature review was conducted on the evolution of cleanroom design and operation.
  • Early cleanrooms demanded very high air change rates and laminar airflow system.
  • Energy efficiency led to lowering flowrates and using demand-control techniques.
  • Stochastic events like human movement and door opening interrupt effective decontamination.
  • Future research must account for stochastic events into design and operation practice.


Cleanroom ventilation systems are well-established; however, the advantages and limitations of current practices need to be examined and explained further. This study begins by looking over the history of cleanroom ventilation systems that creates the basis for understanding ventilation rate specifications, terminologies employed in ventilation effectiveness, and recognizing scientific studies that correlate ventilation effectiveness with air change rates. This systematic review includes a comprehensive summary that contains a set of historical data and evidence that may be used to specify ventilation requirements in cleanrooms. Scientific articles are classified in terms of laboratory experiments, simulations/numerical analysis, or hybrid. HVAC designers and operators can use published codes and guidelines more efficiently if the terminology is properly understood and the design solutions are easy to implement.

The present study aims to provide a deep insight into understanding the role of ventilation on the transport mechanisms of unwanted particles in cleanrooms. Historically, the ventilation rate is typically over-estimated, based on the experience of the designer, to ensure indoor air quality and thermal performance. However, the excess rate significantly impacts the system’s energy consumption. Hence, it is crucial to investigate existing recommendations to ensure if they have a scientific basis or could be proven theoretically before further implementations. Besides, any possible risks and influences associated with the traditional methods must be assessed to guarantee the facility’s performance, sustainability, and energy efficiency.

Keywords: Cleanroom, Ventilation, Ventilation requirements, Air change rate

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