Wei-Jung Tseng1, Jian-He Lu2, How-Ran Chao This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2,3,4, Ming-Hsien Tsai2,5, Yu-Ting Chang1, Liang-Jen Wang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.6, Chih-Cheng Chen7, Wan-Nurdiyana-Wan Mansor8, Juliana Jalaludin9, Chih-Lung Wang10,11, Ying-I Tsai  12 

1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
2 Emerging Compounds Research Center, General Research Service Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
3 Institute of Food Safety Management, College of Agriculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
4 School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5 Department of Child Care, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
6 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
7 Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
8 Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology & Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21300, Malaysia
9 Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400,  Malaysia
10 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
11 Center for Environmental Toxin and Emerging-contaminant Research, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
12 Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan


Received: July 31, 2022
Revised: October 19, 2022
Accepted: October 30, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220288  


Cite this article:

Tseng, W.J., Lu, J.H., Chao, H.R., Tsai, M.., Chang, Y.T., Wang, L.J., Chen, C.C., Mansor, W.N.W., Jalaludin, J., Wang, C.L., Tsai, Y.I. (2022). Associations between Children's Exposure to PM2.5 and their Serum Inflammatory Responses in Taiwan. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 22, 220288. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220288


HIGHLIGHTS

  • PM2.5 had a positive association with children’s inflammatory responses in serum.
  • PM2.5 affected activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in school children’s serum.
  • School children living in Traffic-related-air-pollution PM2.5 had the high serum TNF-α level.
 

ABSTRACT


PM2.5-induced inflammation have been demonstrated in the cellular and animal models, but few studies reported the associations of schoolchildren exposure to PM2.5 with their serum inflammatory biomarkers. Our goal was to examine whether serum inflammation was activated after children with long-term exposure to PM2.5 in an industrialized city of Taiwan. Schoolchildren (n = 183) between the ages of 6 and 12 years living in southern Taiwan were recruited to measure their serum inflammation including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-α2, interleukin 1b (IL-1b), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The subjects were sorted into three groups based on residential addresses in low-PM2.5, high-PM2.5, and traffic-related-air-pollution (TRAP)-PM2.5 areas on the basis of long-term PM2.5 pollution data from air monitoring sites collected over the past decade. Children living in the TRAP-PM2.5 areas had significantly higher TNF-α serum levels than those living in the low-PM2.5 areas. Although serum levels of MCP-1 in children exposed to low PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those in children exposure to high and TRAP PM2.5 levels, the differences were nonsignificant. Principal component (PC) analyses revealed a close association between serum MCP-1 and outdoor PM2.5 (Rotated PC2 (RPC2) and percentage of variance = 10.5%), whereas serum IFN-γ, IFN-α2, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, and TNF-α were highly correlated (RPC1 and percentage of variance = 45.5%). Children's serum TNF-α was significantly linked to PM2.5 exposure scenarios (p = 0.031) by the test of the multivariate analysis (adjusted R2 = 0.033, p = 0.039), but the other variables of age (p = 0.147) and gender (p = 0.291) were not statistically significant. In conclusion, serum TNF-α might be positively and significantly correlated with the longitudinal exposure of schoolchildren to PM2.5, especially among children living in TRAP-PM2.5 region.


Keywords: PM2.5, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), Inflammatory responses, Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), Health risk




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