Pui San Ho1, Kok Chung Chong  1,2, Soon Onn Lai1,2, Sze Sin Lee1,2, Woei Jye Lau3Shih-Yuan Lu4, Boon Seng Ooi5 

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Jalan Sungai Long, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Centre of Photonics and Advanced Materials Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Kampar 31900, Perak, Malaysia
3 Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
4 Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
5 School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal 14300, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Received: June 7, 2022
Revised: August 27, 2022
Accepted: September 28, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220235  

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Cite this article:

Ho, P.S., Chong, K.C., Lai, S.O., Lee, S.S., Lau, W.J., Lu, S.Y., Ooi, B.S. (2022). Synthesis of Cu-BTC Metal-Organic Framework for CO2 Capture via Solvent-free Method: Effect of Metal Precursor and Molar Ratio. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 22, 220235. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220235


  • A simple, fast and solvent-free preparation of Cu-BTC MOF was demonstrated.
  • Cu-BTC was synthesized with different metal-to linker molar ratio.
  • Effect of molar ratio on textural properties and CO2 adsorption were studied.
  • Cu-BTC yield CO2 adsorption at 1.7 mmol g1 up to 5 cycles of adsorption-desorption.


The Cu-BTC (Copper-1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylate) is one of the representative metal organic frameworks (MOFs) that has shown outstanding performance for carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption. However, its conventional synthesis duration is relatively long, and the process requires the addition of bulk amounts of organic solvents. Herein, an enhanced solvent-free synthesis strategy was demonstrated in this work for the Cu-BTC synthesis. For this enhanced method, Cu-BTC was synthesized in 3 hours by mechanically grinding the mixture of copper (Cu) metal precursor and BTC organic linker without using solvent. The as-synthesized Cu-BTC samples were analyzed using various characterization techniques to examine and confirm their properties. The thermal stability result revealed that the self-synthesized Cu-BTC could sustain high temperature up to 290°C. Among the samples synthesized at different mole ratios, the Cu-BTC sample with the Cu to BTC mole ratio of 1.5:1 showed the highest BET surface area and the most significant pore volume of 1044 m2 g–1 and 0.62 cm3 g–1, respectively. Its CO2 adsorption capacity was comparable with those fabricated using the solvent-based method, i.e., 1.7 mmol g–1 at 30°C and 1 bar. The results also showed that the synthesized Cu-BTC exhibited regenerative ability up to five adsorption-desorption cycles.

Keywords: Metal-organic framework, Cu-BTC, Solvent-free, Carbon Dioxide, Adsorption

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