Special Issue on Air Pollution and its Impact in South and Southeast Asia (IX)

Jarl Tynan Collado This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Jose Gabriel Abalos1, Imee de los Reyes2, Melliza T. Cruz1, Gabrielle Frances Leung1, Katrina Abenojar3, Carlos Rosauro Manalo3, Bernell Go5, Christine L. Chan1, Charlotte Kendra Gotangco Gonzales3,4, James Bernard B. Simpas1,2, Emma E. Porio6, John Q. Wong7, Shih-Chun Candice Lung8, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2 

1 Manila Observatory, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
2 Department of Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
3 Department of Environmental Science, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
4 Ateneo Institute of Sustainability, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
5 EpiMetrics Inc., Makati, 1209 Metro Manila, Philippines
6 Department of Sociology and Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
7 Health Sciences Program, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
8 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan


Received: March 16, 2022
Revised: December 12, 2022
Accepted: December 12, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220134  


Cite this article:

Collado, J.T., Abalos, J.G., de los Reyes, I., Cruz, M.T., Leung, G.F., Abenojar, K., Manalo, C.R., Go, B., Chan, C.L., Gonzales, C.K.G., Simpas, J.B.B., Porio, E.E., Wong, J.Q., Lung, S.C.C., Cambaliza, M.O.L. (2023). Spatiotemporal Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure of a High-risk Occupational Group in a Southeast Asian Megacity. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 23, 220134. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220134


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Personal exposure of Metro Manila jeepney drivers to PM2.5 was quantified.
  • The mean PM2.5 is 36.4 µg m3, but exposures at hotspots registered over 90 µg m3.
  • Identified hotspots are tied to traffic and anthropogenic activities.
  • Section near a shopping mall had consistently high PM2.5 concentrations.
 

ABSTRACT


Drivers of open-air public utility jeepneys (PUJs) in the Philippines are regularly exposed to severe levels of fine particulate pollution (PM2.5), making them the appropriate sub-population for investigating the health impacts of PM2.5 on populations chronically exposed to these kinds of unique sources. Real-time PM2.5 exposures of PUJ drivers for a high-traffic route in Metro Manila, Philippines were assessed using Academia Sinica-LUNG (AS_LUNG) portable sensing devices. From all 15-second measurements obtained, the mean concentration of PM2.5 is 36.4 µg m–3, seven times greater than the mean annual guideline value (5.0 µg m–3) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Elevated levels of PM2.5 were observed at key transportation microenvironments (TMEs) such as a transport terminal and near a shopping mall. The occurrence of hotspots along the route is mainly attributed to traffic-promoting factors like stoplights and traffic rush hours. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis revealed that the area by the shopping mall had the highest contribution (β = 52 µg m–3) to PUJ driver exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in the country to perform a detailed characterization of the exposure of a high-risk occupational group to PM2.5. These results reveal information that is normally undetected by fixed site monitoring (FSM), underscoring the importance of mobile measurements as a complement to FSM in assessing the exposure of urban populations to air pollution more extensively. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the heavy influence of traffic-promoting factors on air pollution, and the feasibility of high-resolution mobile sensing for quantifying pollution characteristics in rapidly developing nations with unique air pollution sources. Gaps in our knowledge of their health impacts may be closed through quantifying exposure using reliable sensing devices and methods presented in this work.


Keywords: Metro Manila, Personal monitoring, Low-cost sensor, Traffic pollution, Jeepney




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