Sen Yao  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Hanyu Zhang2,3, Qianheng Wang1 

1 School of Energy and Environment, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007, China
2 School of Ecology and Environment, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
3 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Food Chain Pollution Control, Beijing Technology, and Business University, Beijing 100048, China

Received: March 24, 2022
Revised: May 21, 2022
Accepted: May 28, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

  • Download: PDF

Cite this article:

Yao, S., Zhang, H., Wang, Q. (2022). Vertical Distribution of PM2.5 Transport Flux in Summer and Autumn in Beijing. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • Temporal-spatial variations in PM2.5 transport fluxes were estimated quantitatively.
  • The PM2.5 flux intensity varied under different seasons and pollution levels.
  • Heights where maximum net fluxes in July and October appeared were revealed.
  • The evolution characteristics of PM2.5 transport flux in heavy pollution processes.
  • Local discharging was more likely to cause extreme PM2.5 heavy pollution.


Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 transport fluxes between Beijing and its adjacent cities in July and October 2016 were estimated quantitatively using the cross-boundary transport flux method based on the WRF-CMAQ model in this study. Vertical distribution of PM2.5 net fluxes was revealed, and hourly evolution characteristics of PM2.5 transport fluxes in typical heavy pollution processes were illustrated. We verified significant seasonal differences in PM2.5 transport fluxes between Beijing and its adjacent cities during the study period. PM2.5 total inflow and outflow fluxes in autumn were 3187 t/d and -2721 t/d, which were significantly higher than that of 2134 t/d and -2172 t/d in summer. In autumn, Beijing received more PM2.5 from adjacent cities, while the results in summer were opposite. Maximum net fluxes appeared at 600 - 800 m and 1000 - 1260 m above the ground in summer and autumn, respectively. The vertical distribution characteristics of pollution days and clean days were consistent, both of which show a net inflow from Baoding and Langfang to Beijing, while Beijing was in a state of net outflow to Chengde. During the whole heavy pollution process, the evolution characteristics of PM2.5 flux at low and high altitudes were consistent, and the intensity of the latter was 2.15~5.30 times of the former. Meanwhile, local discharging was more likely to cause extreme PM2.5 heavy pollution, and a better peak clipping effect can be achieved when emission reduction measures are initiated 1 to 2 days before heavy pollution. The results can provide scientific support to put forward effective joint control measures and obtain insights into the evolutionary mechanism of haze episodes in Beijing.

Keywords: Meteorology-air quality coupling model system (WRF-CMAQ), PM2.5 transport flux, Heavy pollution, Vertical distribution, Seasonal difference, Beijing

Share this article with your colleagues 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal that promotes submissions of high-quality research and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world. We use cookies on this website to personalize content to improve your user experience and analyze our traffic. By using this site you agree to its use of cookies.