Shimul Roy   1,3, Yun Fat Lam   2, Shauhrat S. Chopra  1, Md. Mahbubul Hoque3

1 School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR
2 Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, HKSAR
3 Department of Environmental Science and Resource Management, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

Received: February 28, 2022
Revised: November 14, 2022
Accepted: November 24, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Roy, S., Lam, Y.F., Chopra, S.S., Hoque, M.M. (2023). Review of Decadal Changes in ASEAN Emissions Based on Regional and Global Emission Inventory Datasets. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • A comprehensive emission status for ASEAN during 2000–2015 was analyzed.
  • The power generation sector contributed substantial SO2, CO2, and N2O emissions.
  • CO, NOx, and NMVOC were contributed mainly by the road transportation sector.
  • The annual emissions in Indonesia were the highest followed by Vietnam.
  • SO2 and NOx emissions increased by 232% and 145% between 2000 and 2015 in Vietnam.


In Asia, anthropogenic emissions have increased substantially over the last decade from various sectors, including power generation (PG), industries, road transportation (RT), and residential. This study analyzed different regional (REAS, MIX-Asia) and global (EDGAR) emission inventory (EI) datasets to provide insight into ASEAN's comprehensive emission status (emission trend, sectoral and country-specific emissions, changes in spatial distribution) during 2000-2015. The study observed a considerable increase in SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, and particulate matter (PM) emissions in ASEAN during this period. Results analyzed from the EDGAR EI dataset (2015) show that among the pollutants, SO2, CO2, and N2O were substantially contributed by the PG sector (43.4-56%), while CO, NOx, NMVOC, and CH4 were from the RT sector (35.6-61.5%), and PM and NH3 emissions were from the residential sector (50-80.6%). Similar contributions were also observed in 2000 and 2010. It is apparent that these sectors contributed noticeably to the total Asian emission (i.e., 14-34% in 2010, based on the MIX-Asian dataset). We have observed increasing annual emission trends for most pollutants in ASEAN countries, with more significant emission growth in Vietnam (e.g., SO2 and NOx emissions increased by 232% and 145%, respectively). Considerable changes in spatial emission distributions over the ASEAN between that period were also observed caused by the shifting of sparse development into concentrated urban expansion surrounding large metropolitan clusters. The information from this study will be vital for the ASEAN governments to review and update their approved/planned regulations on emission control with prioritizing the sectors aimed at air quality management and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Southeast Asia, Emission inventory, Industry, Thermal power plants, Road transportation

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