Special Issue on Air Pollution and its Impact in South and Southeast Asia

Sepridawati Siregar1,2, Nora Idiawati3, Puji Lestari4, Abiyu Kerebo Berekute5,6, Wen-Chi Pan5,6, Kuo-Pin Yu   5,6 

1 Institute of Public Health, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
2 Faculty of Mineral Technology, AKPRIND Institute of Science & Technology, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3 Faculty of Math and Science, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia
5 International Ph.D. Program in Environmental Science and Technology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
6 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan

Received: January 9, 2022
Revised: May 11, 2022
Accepted: July 4, 2022

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220015  

Cite this article:

Siregar, S., Idiawati, N., Lestari, P., Berekute, A.K., Pan, W.C., Yu, K.P. (2022). Chemical Composition, Source Appointment and Health Risk of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 during Forest and Peatland Fires in Riau, Indonesia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.220015


  • Chemical characterization of particles during forest and peatland fires in Indonesia.
  • Six and five major sources for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were identified.
  • Biomass burning, secondary aerosol and vehicle exhaust are main particle contributors.
  • Both non- and carcinogenic health risk caused by PM2.5 exceed the acceptable level.


This study investigated the contributions of particulate matter (PM) from various emission sources during the dry season, which resulted from frequent fires occurring in degraded forests and peatlands in Indonesia. Samples of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles collected during the dry season in Riau, Indonesia were analyzed to determine the mass concentrations of metallic trace elements, ionic compound, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC). The average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at Riau, Indonesia were 63.85 ± 3.22 µg m-3 and 27.72 ± 2.40 µg m-3, respectively. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was adopted to identify possible PM sources and their contributions to the ambient PM level. The PMF results identified six major PM2.5 sources, including biomass burning (BB) (28.7%), secondary aerosols (SA) (26.9%), vehicle exhaust (VE) (12.8%), industrial emissions (IE) (12.3%), soil dust (SD) (11.9%), and sea salt (SS) (7.5%). Moreover, there were five primary PM2.5-10 sources, including VE (28.6%) and BB (24%), followed by IE (19.9%), SD (17.2%), and SA (15.3%). A conditional probability function (CPF) analysis revealed that the southeast sector dominated among source direction-dependent contributions. The noncarcinogenic health risks for both adults and children resulting from exposure to PM2.5 were mainly contributed by Co, Ni, and Mn, and carcinogenic risks were caused by the toxic metals Cr and Co. Both noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks resulting from cumulative multielement exposure for both adults and children exceeded acceptable levels. Clearly, more attention should be devoted to reducing the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks caused by particulate-bound toxic elements through inhalation exposure.

Keywords: Metal elements, Ionic compound, Black and organic carbon, Carcinogenic, Noncarcinogenic

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