Jinho Yang1,5, Ji-Hoon Seo2,3, Young-Koo Jee4, Yoon-Keun Kim This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Jong-Ryeul Sohn This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2,3 

1 MD Healthcare Inc., Seoul, Korea
2 Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
3 BK21 FOUR R&E Center for Learning Health Systems, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea
5 Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Semyung University, Jecheon, Korea


Received: September 3, 2021
Revised: September 16, 2022
Accepted: April 5, 2023

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210231  

Cite this article:

Yang, J., Seo, J.H., Jee, Y.K., Kim, Y.K., Sohn, J.R. (2023). Composition Analysis of Airborne Microbiota in Outdoor and Indoor Based on Dust Separated by Micro-sized and Nano-sized. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 23, 210231. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210231


  • Outdoor environment affects composition of micro- and nano-sized bioaerosols.
  • Significant differences were found in composition and correlation of m-MB and n-MEV.
  • n-MEV has strong correlations with indoor and outdoor air.
  • Indoor m-MB in carpet is affected by outdoor air.
  • Nano-sized airborne microorganisms are key to air quality management.


Airborne microorganisms are associated with human health and awareness of the important influence of nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) on health has risen. Thus, we analyzed the micro-sized microbes (m-MBs) and nano-sized microbial EVs (n-MEVs) of outdoor and indoor air through a field study in Seoul, Korea. We conducted 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis of m-MBs and n-MEVs in outdoor airborne dust (OAD), indoor airborne dust (IAD), and indoor dust from carpets (IDC). The dominant taxa in OAD were altered depending upon the outside environment, such as sunny, haze, and rainy. Also, dominant taxa in IAD and IDC were changed depending on the outside environment. In addition, there were differences of microbiome composition and diversity between the m-MB and n-MEV in OAD, IAD, and IDC. m-MB in OAD were more correlated with that of IDC, whereas n-MEVs in OAD were more related to those in IAD. Thus, indoor bioaerosols can be affected by different source according to bioaerosol size. Additionally, risk of bioaerosols can be different according to dominant taxa, and therefore we suggested that further study for risk of dominant taxa according to environments is necessary. We suggested that nano-sized microbial EVs should be included as parameters to manage air quality.

Keywords: Metagenomics, Bioaerosol, Extracellular vesicles, Nanoparticle, Microbiota

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