Hao Yang1, Yongqiang Zhang1, Cong Li This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Yu Fang1, Xinghu Li2 

1 School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
2 School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China

Received: July 20, 2021
Revised: October 12, 2021
Accepted: October 13, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210175  

Cite this article:

Yang, H., Zhang, Y., Li, C., Fang, Y., Li, X. (2021). Physicochemical Characteristics of Particulate Matter Emitted from the Oxygenated Fuel/Diesel Blend Engine. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 210175. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210175


  • Smaller PM and larger fractal dimension improved the oxidation reactivity.
  • Oxygen-containing functional group and disorder of PM make the oxidation rate faster.
  • PODE2-4 can affect the PM oxidation reactivity, making it easier to be oxidized.
  • Using FT-IR and XPS to analyze the oxidation reactivity of PODE2-4 exhaust particles.


The physicochemical characteristics of particulate matter (PM) produced by polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE2-4)/diesel blended fuel at different blend ratios was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM analysis indicated that the overall size of PM decreased with an increasing PODE2-4 concentration. TEM images using fractal theory showed that the fractal dimension of PM increased as the PODE2-4 blending ratio increased. These trends increased the oxidation activity. FTIR was used to analyze the aliphatic C-H on the surface of PM and found that the ratio IC-H/IC=C and the aliphatic C-H functional group on the surface of PM decreased with an increasing PODE2-4 blending ratio. According to XPS data, with increments of the PODE2-4 blending ratio, the contents of O/C, sp3/sp2, C-OH, C=O and total oxygen-containing functional groups of the PM increased, demonstrating that the oxygen-containing functional group and disorder of the PM nanostructure was correlated with a faster oxidation rate. Results thus demonstrated that the addition of PODE2-4 can affect the nanostructure and oxidation activity of PM, making it easier to oxidize to reduce environmental pollution.

Keywords: Particulate matter, Physicochemical characteristics, Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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