Mustafa Mutlu This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Program, Vocational School of Yenisehir Ibrahim Orhan, Bursa Uludag University, 16900 Yenisehir, Bursa, Turkey

Received: June 17, 2021
Revised: August 11, 2021
Accepted: August 22, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Cite this article:

Mutlu, M. (2021). Particle Concentration Comparison of Radiator and Floor Heating Systems under Zero Air Change Rate Condition. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 210148.


  • Heating systems form particle concentration in a room.
  • Particles in a room with a floor heating system are removed faster.
  • Radiator heating system has better performance when a particle source exists.


As a result of isolating doors and windows very well to reduce heating energy costs, some environments' air change rate becomes zero. Two different heating systems (radiator and floor heating systems) widely used in residential applications were compared for a room where the air change rate is zero, using numerical methods in terms of particle concentrations. 3D dimensional CFD simulations show that the floor heating system performs better in removing the pollutants dispersed homogeneously in the room, while the radiator system is more effective in removing the pollutants emitted from a source close to the floor. It was concluded that special care should be taken not to have a source of pollutants close to the ground surface in the environments where a floor heating system is used.

Keywords: Indoor air, Particle distribution, Radiator heating, Floor heating, Zero air change

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