Aijing Song1, Jingjing Meng This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Ruiwen Zhou1, Zheng Li1, Yuanyuan Li1, Min Chen1, Zhanfang Hou1, Li Yan This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Yiqiu Wang3

1 School of Geography and the Environment, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000, China
2 Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, Beijing 100012, China
3 Liaocheng Environmental Information and Monitoring Center, Liaocheng 252000, China


Received: June 15, 2021
Revised: July 7, 2021
Accepted: July 10, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210144  

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Cite this article:

Song, A., Meng, J., Zhou, R., Li, Z., Li, Y., Chen, M., Hou, Z., Yan, L., Wang, Y. (2021). Characteristics and Sources of Single Particles in the Urban Liaocheng of North China during the Heating Period. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 210144. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210144


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Higher concentrations of PM2.5, NOx, SO2 and CO during the heating except for O3.
  • The single particles were more acidic and less aged during the heating.
  • The aerosol relative acidity was influenced by relative humidity (RH).
 

REFERENCES


Liaocheng represents one of the most serious polluted cities in Northern China. To investigate the impact of residential heating activities on atmospheric particles, the chemical composition, size distribution, and evolution process of single particles collected during the wintertime of 2019 were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). The results showed that the concentrations of four air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO during the heating period were 1.1–1.2 times higher than those before the heating period largely due to the increase of pollutant emissions from coal combustion, while O3 concentration during the heating period decreased by 40.2%. The mass spectra and unscaled size distributions of single particles suggested that the particles had undergone a significant aging process during the whole observation period. The acidity of single particles was calculated by the relative acidity ratio (Rra), which increased from 36.1 ± 13.9 before the heating period to 64.8 ± 43.9 during the heating period, implying that the single particles were more acidic and less aged during the heating period, mainly due to the enhanced formation of sulfate and nitrate and the decreased O3 concentration during the heating period. Moreover, Rra decreased from clean days to polluted days before and during the heating period, suggesting that the atmospheric particles in polluted days were less acidic and more aged. The percentage of elemental carbon (EC) particles increased by 13.6% and 11.5% from clean days to polluted days before and during the heating period, respectively, suggesting the significant contribution of EC particles to the polluted days. Source identification results showed that single particles before the heating period were mostly derived from secondary inorganic source (26.5%) and vehicle exhaust (21.4%), whereas those during the heating period were largely from coal combustion (24.0%) and secondary inorganic source (21.4%).


Keywords: Size distribution, Online source analysis, Aerosol acidity (Rra), The heating period, Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS)




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