Tang Wei Chen1, Jyh Cherng Chen2, Zhen Shu Liu3, Kai Hsien Chi4, Moo Been Chang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 

1 Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2 Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
3 Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei, Taiwan
4 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan

Received: June 13, 2021
Revised: September 15, 2021
Accepted: September 16, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210140  

Cite this article:

Chen, T.W., Chen, J.C., Liu, Z.S., Chi, K.H., Chang, M.B. (2021). Characterization of PM, PAHs and Gaseous Pollutants Emitted from Sintering Process and Electric Arc Furnace. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210140


  • Concentrations of PM emitted from two steel-making processes are higher than 5 mg Nm3.
  • CPM emitted from steel-making process is significantly higher than that of FPM.
  • Steel-making process has high PAHs emissions.
  • Steel-making process is one of the main contributions to CO emission.


Iron and steel industry is crucial for economic development. However, large exhaust volume and complex feeding of the steel-making process results in enormous emissions of air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study sampled and analyzed the concentrations of PM, PAHs, SOx, NOx and CO at the inlet and outlet of the air pollution control devices (APCDs) adopted in sintering process (SP) and electric arc furnaces (EAF), respectively, to evaluate the performance of APCDs and emission characteristics of these air pollutants. The results show that filterable PM (FPM) concentrations measured at stacks of SP and EAF are 8.2±1.3 and 13.6±2.2 mg/Nm3, respectively. The FPM2.5 concentrations emitted from SP and EAF are 1.8±0.5 and 3.2±1.1 mg Nm-3, respectively, while the condensable PM (CPM) concentrations emitted from SP and EAF are measured as 37.7±1.3 and 3.4±0.8 mg Nm-3, respectively. Moreover, the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped in SP removed 82% and 58% of SOx and NOx, respectively, whereas SOx and NOx emitted from EAF are relatively low (<1 ppm). The overall PAH removal efficiencies achieved with the APCDs adopted by SP and EAF are 72% and 26%, respectively. For total toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) PAH concentrations, similar results for SP (5.45 μg-BaPeq Nm-3) and EAF (4.74 μg-BaPeq Nm-3) are obtained. Moreover, the diagnosis ratios of FL/CHR, FL/(BaA+CHR), Pyr/5-MC and Pyr/(BaA+CHR) are suggested as the indicators for EAF. The emission factors calculated indicate that operating conditions of the APCDs in the SP investigated are well controlled. The concentrations of air pollutants emitted from SP investigated are lower than other studies. On the other hand, the concentrations of FPM and PM2.5 emitted from EAF are higher than other studies. However, NOx, SOx and PAHs are well controlled. Moreover, the CO emission factors calculated from these two steel-making processes are higher than most reports. Overall, the operation of APCDs should be improved to reduce air pollutants emitted from these two steel-making processes.

Keywords: Iron and steel industry, Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulfur oxides (SOx), Particulate matter (PM), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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