Duy-Hieu Nguyen1, Chitsan Lin This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2, Nicholas Kiprotich Cheruiyot2, Jen-Yu Hsu3, Ming-Yuan Cho4, Shih-Hsien Hsu5, Chin-Ko Yeh1

1 Ph.D. Program in Maritime Science and Technology, College of Maritime, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
2 Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
3 Legend Environmental Technology Co., Ltd., Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
4 Department of Electrical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan
5 Department of Electrical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan

Received: April 29, 2021
Revised: May 28, 2021
Accepted: May 30, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210100  

Cite this article:

Nguyen, D.H., Lin, C., Cheruiyot, N.K., Hsu, J.Y., Cho, M.Y., Hsu, S.H., Yeh, C.K. (2021). Reduction of NOx and SO2 Emissions by Shore Power Adoption. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 210100. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210100


  • Ship emissions contribute to air pollution in the city center and nearby urban areas.
  • NOx and SO2 are the main pollutants of concern from ship emissions.
  • Elevated areas are the most vulnerable to ship emissions, especially for NOx.
  • Shore power adoption reduces air pollution and improves the port city’s air quality.


Shore power systems, an alternative energy source to ships at berth, have the potential to improve air quality at ports and surrounding areas. This study assessed the reduction of four major air pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, NOx, and SO2, from adopting shore power at the Port of Kaohsiung. The reduction was assessed in two scenarios, S1 and S2, with a capacity to provide shore power to 342 and 780 ships at berth, respectively. The emissions from the ships were estimated based on the operation loads of the auxiliary engines, average time at berth, and emission factors. Additionally, the AERMOD model was used to simulate the ground-level dispersion of the four pollutants to the surrounding urban areas. The simulation results showed that the elevated areas in the city were vulnerable to ship emissions, especially for NOx. The maximum simulated contribution at ground level from S1 and S2 were 78.8 µg m–3 and 147 µg m–3 for NOx, and 20.1 µg m–3 and 42.5 µg m–3 for SO2, respectively; while the results for PM10 and PM2.5 were insignificant. The reduction benefit was then calculated as the ratio of the simulated air pollutant concentration to the observed concentration at the local air quality monitoring station. The highest reduction benefit of shore power adoption at the port was for NOx and SO2 emissions, with average reduction benefits of 8.70% ± 2.10% and 11.74% ± 2.95%, respectively. In conclusion, shore power adoption at the Port of Kaohsiung would greatly reduce air pollution in the port city, especially in residential areas, and be consider

Keywords: Green ports, Cold ironing, Air quality improvement, Ship emissions, Low-sulfur fuel

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