Fanxuan Yu1, Kangping Cui This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Hwey-Lin Sheu This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Yen-Kung Hsieh3, Xueying Tian1 

1 School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 246011, China
2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71070, Taiwan
3 Marine Ecology and Conservation Research Center, National Academy of Marine Research, Kaohsiung 80661, Taiwan


Received: March 17, 2021
Revised: April 18, 2021
Accepted: April 19, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210059  

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Cite this article:

Yu, F., Cui, K., Sheu, H.L., Hsieh, Y.K., Tian, X. (2021). Atmospheric Concentration, Particle-bound Content, and Dry Deposition of PCDD/Fs. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 210059. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210059


HIGHLIGHTS 

  • Atmospheric total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ concentration.
  • PM2.5 concentration.
  • Atmospheric PM2.5-Bound total PCDD/Fs-TEQ content.
  • Phase distribution of total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ.
  • Dry deposition of total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ.
 

ABSTRACT


In this study, the atmospheric total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ concentrations, gas-particle partitioning, PM2.5 concentration, PM2.5-bound total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ content and dry deposition flux in Shanghai and Nanjing were investigated from 2018-2020. In Shanghai, the total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ concentration dropped from 0.0291 pg-WHO2005-TEQ m–3 from 2018–2019 to 0.0250 pg-WHO2005-TEQ m–3 in 2020, while in Nanjing, it dropped from 0.0423 pg-WHO2005-TEQ m–3 to 0.0338 pg-WHO2005-TEQ m–3. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ in spring and winter in Shanghai and Nanjing were 47.6% and 53.8% higher than those in summer, respectively. From 2018-2019, the average particle phase fractions of total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ in Shanghai and Nanjing were 50.3% and 57.5%, respectively, while in 2020, they were 47.8% and 55.1%, respectively. From 2018-2019, the average PM2.5-bound total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ content was 0.342 and 0.493 ng-WHO2005-TEQ g–1 in Shanghai and Nanjing, respectively, while in 2020, it was 0.312 and 0.489 ng-WHO2005-TEQ g–1, respectively. In Shanghai and Nanjing, the average PM2.5-bound total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ content in spring and winter was 77.5% and 73.2% higher than that in summer, respectively. From 2018–2019, the dry deposition flux of total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ was 316.3 and 460.5 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 month–1 in Shanghai and Nanjing, respectively, while in 2020, it was 272.5 and 368.4 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 month–1, respectively. The average dry deposition flux of total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ in spring and winter was 47.6% and 53.8% higher than that summer in Shanghai and Nanjing, respectively. The above results indicate that COVID-19 in 2020 had a positive effect on air quality improvement in PCDD/Fs. On average, more than 98.88% of the total PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ dry deposition flux was primarily contributed by the particle phase. This was attributed to the fact that dry deposition of particle phase PCDD/Fs was mainly due to gravitational settling accompanied by higher dry deposition velocities, while the gas phase PCDD/Fs were deposited mostly by diffusion at a lower dry deposition velocity.


Keywords: PCDD/Fs, PM2.5, Particle-bound, Phase distribution, Dry deposition




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