P.D. Hien1, V.T. Bac This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, N.T.H. Thinh2, H.L. Anh2, D.D. Thang2, N.T. Nghia3 

1 Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 Institute for Nuclear Science & Technique, Nghia Do, Hanoi, Vietnam
3 Hanoi University of Science (HUS), Hanoi, Vietnam

Received: March 16, 2021
Revised: July 7, 2021
Accepted: July 7, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210056  

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Cite this article:

Hien, P.D., Bac, V.T., Thinh, N.T.H., Anh, H.L., Thang, D.D., Nghia, N.T. (2021). A Comparison Study of Chemical Compositions and Sources of PM1.0 and PM2.5 in Hanoi. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210056


  • The mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 are (44.5 ± 21.0) µg m3 and (30.1 ± 13.9) µg m3.
  • Sulfate, ammonium, and BC are predominant chemical components in both fractions.
  • LRT, primary traffic emissions, and coal burning are more abundant in PM1.0.
  • LRT aerosols are highly acidic in PM1.0 and neutral in PM2.5.


Eighty-five pairs of 24-h PM1.0 and PM2.5 samples collected simultaneously from a new urban area in Hanoi were analyzed for chemical components by using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and ion chromatography (IC) to provide input data for source characterization by positive matrix factorization (PMF). Sulfate, black carbon (BC), and ammonium were the most abundant chemical components in both PM1.0 and PM2.5. Long-range transport (LRT) aerosols were distinctly delineated in the PMF models from the six in-situ sources, i.e., resuspended road dust, primary vehicle emissions, coal fly ash, biomass burning, construction dust, and sea salt. More than two-thirds of PM1.0 and PM2.5 sulfate and ammonium concentrations measured at the site were the result of LRT into the area. LRT aerosols, coal fly ash, and particles from primary vehicle emissions were found predominantly in PM1.0. Meanwhile, resuspended road dust and biomass-burning fly ash tend to occur in the upper size fraction, PM1.0-2.5, indicating there is little interference in the characterization of anthropogenic emissions by studying PM1.0, instead of PM2.5. Air masses with inland trajectories originating from northern China and countries to the NW and SW contained more ammonium, sulfate, and BC than those passing over the East Sea. LRT aerosols were highly acidic in PM1.0 but neutral in PM2.5.

Keywords: Submicron particles, LRT, Nitrate formation rate, Particle size partitioning, Back trajectory, Hanoi, Vietnam

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