Adrian Zamorategui-Molina This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Norma Gutiérrez-Ortega1, Juan Carlos Baltazar-Vera2, Julio Del Angel3, David Tirado-Torres1 

1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Guanajuato, 36050 Guanajuato, Mexico
2 Department of Mine Engineering, Metallurgy and Geology, University of Guanajuato, 36050 Guanajuato, Mexico
3 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guanajuato, 36050 Guanajuato, Mexico


Received: February 22, 2021
Revised: June 21, 2021
Accepted: June 23, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210039  

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Cite this article:

Zamorategui-Molina, A., Gutiérrez-Ortega, N., Baltazar-Vera, J.C., Del Angel, J., Tirado-Torres, D. (2021). Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter Concentration inside the Road Tunnels of Guanajuato City, Mexico. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210039


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Road Tunnels are used by pedestrians to reduce time and distance in Guanajuato city.
  • The particulate matter concentration in tunnels is above the permissible limit.
  • The chemical composition of particulate matter corresponds to the mineral dust present.
  • The high emission factors suggest implementation of a ventilation system in tunnels.
 

ABSTRACT


Road tunnels have been a successful means of avoiding congestion in the city of Guanajuato. They are also used by pedestrians to reduce travel time and distance. However, exposure to elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter such as PM2.5 and PM10 from vehicle emissions, as well as the resuspension of particulate matter are risk factors for health. In the city of Guanajuato, the CO, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, wind speed and number of vehicles in three of the more polluted and most frequently used tunnels by pedestrians was monitored. To monitor the CO concentration, non-dispersive infrared radiation was used. The PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were evaluated using a handheld analyzer with a high precision laser sensor (Aerocet-831). The mineralogy, chemical composition, and morphology of particulate matter were analyzed by XRD, XRF and SEM-EDS, respectively. The average CO concentration does not exceed 50 ppm for an exposure time of 30 minutes as recommended by the World Health Organization, however the average concentrations for PM10 in the three tunnels are above the permissible limit of 50 µg m-3 24-hour average for the air quality inside the tunnels. The high emission factors suggest the necessity of the implementation of a ventilation system inside the tunnels. The chemical composition of particulate matter corresponds to the mineral dust present.


Keywords: CO, Emissions factors, PM2.5, Underground road




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