Xianbao Shen1,2,3, Lei Kong3, Yue Shi3, Xinyue Cao1,2,3, Xin Li1,2,3, Bobo Wu1,2,3, Hanyu Zhang1,2,3, Zhiliang Yao This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1,2,3

1 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Food Chain Pollution Control, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
2 Key Laboratory of Cleaner Production and Integrated Resource Utilization of China National Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
3 School of Ecology and Environment, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China

Received: January 7, 2021
Revised: May 6, 2021
Accepted: May 31, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210003  

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Cite this article:

Shen, X., Kong, L., Shi, Y., Cao, X., Li, X., Wu, B., Zhang, H., Yao, Z. (2021). Multi-type Air Pollutant Emission Inventory of Non-road Mobile Sources in China for the Period 1990-2017. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.210003


  • Non-road mobile sources emissions from China during 1990–2017 have been estimated.
  • Acquiring machinery numbers of different technology distributions by survival rate.
  • Agricultural machinery were dominant sources.
  • The North China Plain and the Southeast Coastal Area were major emissions sources.


Following increasingly strict supervision of road mobile sources and ongoing research developments, the proportion of non-road mobile source emissions as a contribution to total emissions has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, accurate estimation of an emission inventory of non-road mobile sources is essential for determining policy intended to improve air quality. This study established an inventory of multi-type air pollutant emissions from non-road mobile sources in China for the period 1990–2017. Four types of non-road equipment were considered: construction machinery, agricultural machinery, vessels, and diesel locomotives and nine pollutant types were inventoried: CO, NOx, HC, PM2.5, PM10, BC, OC, VOCs, and SO2. We found that emissions of the investigated pollutants from non-road mobile sources in China increased continually from 1990, decreased slowed after 2014, and then increased again in 2017. Vessels contributed the largest proportion of SO2 pollutant emissions, while agricultural machinery accounted for the largest proportions of the other pollutant emissions from non-road mobile sources. In 2017, emissions of CO and NOx from agricultural machinery were approximately 1472.5 and 2170.4 Gg, accounting for 67.7% and 46.1% of the total CO and NOx emissions from non-road mobile sources, respectively. Analysis of the spatial characteristics of pollutants indicated that high levels of emissions were distributed on the North China Plain and in the Southeast China Coastal Area. The findings revealed the necessity for improving the system for registration of non-road equipment activity. Additionally, China urgently needs further research on the emission characteristics of non-road mobile sources to ensure accurate emission factors.

Keywords: Non-road, Emission inventory, Multiple pollutants, China

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