Special Issue on COVID-19 Aerosol Drivers, Impacts and Mitigation (XVI)

Muhayatun Santoso This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Philip K. Hopke2, Didin Agustian Permadi3, Endah Damastuti1, Diah Dwiana Lestiani1, Syukria Kurniawati1, Desie Khoerotunnisya4, Suradi Karto Sukir5 

1 Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Bandung, Indonesia
2 University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
3 National Institute of Technology (ITENAS), Bandung, Indonesia
4 The Environmental Protection Agency of Jakarta Province, Kuningan, South Jakarta, Indonesia
5 Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics of Indonesia (BMKG), Jakarta, Indonesia

Received: November 24, 2020
Revised: April 13, 2021
Accepted: April 18, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200645  

Cite this article:

Santoso, M., Hopke, P.K., Permadi, D.A., Damastuti, E., Lestiani, D.D., Kurniawati, S.,Khoerotunnisya, D., Sukir, S.K. (2021). Multiple Air Quality Monitoring Evidence of the Impacts of Large-scale Social Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 200645. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200645


  • Effects of LSSR on air quality in Jakarta Indonesia was conducted.
  • Both ground and satellite-based air quality observations were used for assessment.
  • Reduction of 40–60% of SO2, CO, NO, NO2 and NOx concentrations during the LSSR period.
  • Surface O3 increased by 33% likely due to reduction in NOx
  • PM5 reduced by 40% as well as its components and AOD.


Air pollution is a top contributor to global mortality. Air quality issues abound in developing Asian countries, but during COVID-19 lockdowns, urban air quality improved due to the reduction in public mobility and fuel consumption. In Indonesia, the Large-Scale Social Restriction (LSSR) program was implemented to prevent the wider spread of COVID-19, especially in large urban areas. It was not a total lockdown program but had the purpose of reducing urban public mobility. This study investigated the effects of social restrictions on air quality in Jakarta, Indonesia. Data were obtained from our long-term monitoring of fine (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10) and compositions collected at a site in South Jakarta. Other data were obtained from the environmental protection agency’s (EPA’s) air quality monitoring station in Central Jakarta including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in Jakarta measured by a sun photometer and satellite data were used to assess the spatial distribution of AOD across Jakarta. During the first LSSR implementation period from 15 March to 30 May 2020, there were decreased average SO2, CO, NO, NO2, and NOx concentrations of 40 to 60% compared to the same period in 2019. However, O3 increased by 33% likely due to reduction in NOx emissions. The PM2.5 decline reached ~40%, but a similar decline was not observed for PM10. Elemental and black carbon concentration data showed reductions that ranged from 30% to more than 50%. Consistent with the PM observations, both ground and satellite based AOD showed reductions in the aerosol column burden over the city. The ground based AOD values showed moderate correlations with PM2.5. The results confirmed that significant reduction in public mobility was highly associated with the improvement of local air quality which useful to derive future control strategies.

Keywords: PM2.5, PM10, chemical composition, BC, AOD

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