Special Issue on COVID-19 Aerosol Drivers, Impacts and Mitigation

Muhammad Rendana This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indralaya 30662 South Sumatera, Indonesia


Received: November 14, 2020
Revised: March 9, 2021
Accepted: March 11, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200630  

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Cite this article:

Rendana, M. (2021). Air Pollutant Levels during the Large-scale Social Restriction Period and its Association with Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200630


  • PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO levels significantly decreased during the LSSR period.
  • The PM10 was positively correlated with case fatality rate of COVID-19.
  • The emissions from biomass burning activities was a major source during the LSSR period.


The COVID-19 outbreak has caused millions of deaths in all over the world since it was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic in March 2020. To stop the deadly spread of the virus, many countries, including Indonesia, have applied the ‘Large-scale Social Restriction’ (LSSR) policy. Numerous studies have reported positive impacts of air quality due to this policy. However, in Indonesia, data on the impacts of LSSR on air quality are still sparse. Therefore, this study aims to analyze changes in air quality at before and during the LSSR periods in the South Sumatera Province, Indonesia using the satellite-based observations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The results showed that the concentrations of the measured pollutants markedly declined during the LSSR period from the highest was SO2 (98.90%) and followed by NO2 (34.79%), CO (12.70%) and PM10 (11.54%), respectively. The emissions from biomass burning activities were expected as a major source of air pollutant during the LSSR. Furthermore, we found a positive association between PM10 and the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in the study area (r = 0.514, p < 0.05). Finally, this study concluded that the implementation of LSSR could reduce air pollutants concentration in the study area while a higher PM10 exposure could increase the risk of death from COVID-19. The output of the study can be used to arrange air quality management practice and COVID-19 transmission control in Indonesia.

Keywords: Air pollutant, Large-scale social restriction, Case fatality rate, COVID-19, PM10

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