Ichiro Higashikubo1, Rizki Andre Handika2,3, Toshihiro Kawamoto1, Hidesuke Shimizu1, Thunyapat Thongyen4, Suthida Piriyakarnsakul2,6, Amin Muhammad2, Mitsuhiko Hata This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.5, Masami Furuuchi5,7

1 Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014, Japan
2 Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
3 Faculty of Science and Technology, Jambi University, Pondok Meja, Jambi, 36364, Indonesia
4 Facutly of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
5 Faculty of Geoscience and Civil Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
6 Division of Manpower Strategy, Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

Received: October 24, 2020
Revised: October 24, 2020
Accepted: November 13, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.10.0606  

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Cite this article:

Higashikubo, I., Handika, R.A., Kawamoto, T., Shimizu, H., Thongyen, T., Piriyakarnsakul, S., Muhammad, A., Hata, M., Furuuchi, M. (2021). Worker’s Personal Exposure to PM0.1 and PM4 Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials during Packaging. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 200606. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.10.0606


  • The status of the exposure to PM4 and PM0.1 of nano-TiO2 production was investigated.
  • PM0.1 exposure was evaluated in a worker’s breathing zone by a personal air sampler.
  • More than 70% of particles in the breathing zone was coarse agglomerates of > 1 µm.
  • The maximum PM0.1 occurred in a powder filling booth without air ventilation.
  • A gasoline forklift temporarily increased the concentration of ultrafine particles.


For the appropriate hygienic management of workplaces where workers handled nano-TiO2 products, the status of the personal exposure of workers to respirable dust (PM4) and nanoparticles (PM0.1) was investigated. Using a cyclone sampler for PM4 and a personal sampler for PM0.1, PM4 and PM0.1 exposure levels were evaluated to discuss them in relation to worker’s duties. The number of particles of 0.01–10 µm was also monitored online in order to examine the short-term fluctuation in the concentration and size distribution of particles. The 8h-time-weighted average (TWA) and 95% upper limit for respirable dust exposure were below the occupational exposure limit specified by the Japan Society for Occupational Health and the recommended exposure limits for TWA by NIOSH. The action level was exceeded during the filling of a flexible container bag. More than 70% of particles in the breathing zone was coarse agglomerates of > 1 µm, while it may be influenced by powder properties and the handling process as well as the management of local ventilation. The maximum PM0.1 concentration (31.3 µg m–3) occurred in a powder filling booth without air ventilation. The operation of a gasoline powered forklift temporarily increased the concentration of ultrafine particles. Most of TiO2 powder was suspended as micron-order agglomerates in the breathing zone. However, since PM0.1 exposure was much larger than those in outdoor environment particularly under insufficient cares to aerosolized powder and air ventilation, PM0.1 exposure should also be monitored.

Keywords: Personal exposure, Nanomaterial, Titanium dioxide, Respirable dust, Aerosol nanoparticles

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