Colleen Marciel F. Rosales1, Jinsang Jung2, Mylene G. Cayetano This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.3 

1 Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
2 Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34113, Korea
3 Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Received: November 7, 2020
Revised: January 28, 2021
Accepted: February 25, 2021

 Copyright The Author's institutions. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited. 

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Rosales, C.M.F., Jung, J., Cayetano, M.G. (2021). Emissions and Chemical Components of PM2.5 from Simulated Cooking Conditions Using Traditional Cookstoves and Fuels under a Dilution Tunnel System. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • UP Diliman dilution tunnel collected PM5 from Philippine cookstoves and fuels.
  • PM5 cookstove emission rates were higher than WHO targets for vented cookstoves.
  • Particulate emission factors for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Cd and Pb are reported.
  • Trends in concentrations of ions and monosugars in PM5 point to biomass burning.
  • PM5 water-soluble organic carbon depends on size and surface area of solid fuel.


Inventory of household emissions from solid fuel use is often costly and undetected by air quality monitoring systems; nonetheless, it is important when finding the link between household pollution and health impacts. This study quantified PM2.5 emissions and characterized the particulate composition of smoke emitted from Philippine traditional cookstove-fuel combinations inside the UP Diliman dilution tunnel system (UPDDTS). Cement and charcoal (CCP), tin can and sawdust (KKP), metal-grill and fuelwood (MFP), metal and kerosene (MKP), and metal-grill and charcoal (MCC) were tested. The PM2.5 emission rates under UPDDTS were 1.9 to 23 × 106 mg min-1, higher than the WHO emission rate target guidelines (0.8 mg min-1) for vented conditions. MKP has the highest PM2.5 emission factor—0.032 ± 0.016 kg PM2.5 kg fuel-1 yr-1—which is three orders of magnitude higher than literature values. Out of 43 tests conducted representing the five cookstove–fuel combinations, water-soluble K+ (23.0 ± 1.9 μg m-3) and Cl- (12.3 ± 1.0 μg m-3) comprise most of CCP ions, while Na+ (43 ± 22 μg m-3) comprise most of MKP. Levoglucosan dominates KKP, MFP, and MCC PM2.5 monosugar compositions (78.72 ± 6.96, 0.76 ± 0.34, and 10.21 ± 2.64 μg m-3 respectively), confirming biomass burning signatures. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) abundance on all samples except MFP shows dependence of feed fuel on size and surface area. PM2.5 emissions from CCP, KKP, and MCC were dominated by Pb (1.96 ± 1.04 to 76.02 ± 151.42 ng min-1), MFP by Cu (2.23 ± 1.18 ng min-1), and KKP by As (5.51 ± 1.08 ng min-1).

Keywords: Emission inventory, Emission factor, dilution tunnel, Particulate matter, Air quality

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