Colleen Marciel F. Rosales1, Jinsang Jung2, Mylene G. Cayetano This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.3 

1 Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
2 Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34113, Korea
3 Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Received: November 7, 2020
Revised: January 28, 2021
Accepted: February 25, 2021

 Copyright The Author's institutions. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited. 

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Rosales, C.M.F., Jung, J., Cayetano, M.G. (2021). Emissions and Chemical Components of PM2.5 from Simulated Cooking Conditions Using Traditional Cookstoves and Fuels under a Dilution Tunnel System. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 200581.


  • UP Diliman dilution tunnel collected PM5 from Philippine cookstoves and fuels.
  • PM5 cookstove emission rates were higher than WHO targets for vented cookstoves.
  • Particulate emission factors for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Cd and Pb are reported.
  • Trends in concentrations of ions and monosugars in PM5 point to biomass burning.
  • PM5 water-soluble organic carbon depends on size and surface area of solid fuel.


Despite the considerable cost associated with estimating household emissions from solid fuel, which are frequently undetected by air quality monitoring systems, compiling such an inventory is critical to identifying the link between indoor pollution and health effects. Therefore, this study used the UP Diliman dilution tunnel system (UPDDTS) to characterize the composition of particulate matter in the smoke and quantify the PM2.5 emitted by traditional Philippine cooking systems, viz., a charcoal-burning cement stove (CCP), a sawdust-burning tin-can stove (KKP), a fuelwood-burning metal-grill stove (MFP), a kerosene-burning metal stove (MKP), and a charcoal-burning metal-grill stove (MCC). Forty-three sampling tests revealed that water-soluble K+ (23.0 ± 1.9 µg m–3), Cl (12.3 ± 1.0 µg m–3), and Na+ (43 ± 22 µg m–3) contributed to the majority of the ionic mass concentrations generated by the CCP and MKP, respectively, whereas levoglucosan—a signature of biomass burning—dominated the PM2.5-bound monosugars emitted by the KKP (78.72 ± 6.96 µg m–3), MFP (0.76 ± 0.34 µg m–3), and MCC (10.21 ± 2.64 µg m–3). The abundance of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in all of the samples, except those from the MKP, depended on the surface area—and thus the facet—of the fuel. Additionally, the elemental compositions of the PM2.5 from the CCP, KKP, and MCC mainly consisted of Pb (1.96 ± 1.04 to 76.02 ± 151.42 ng min–1), but those for the MFP and KKP primarily contained Cu (2.23 ± 1.18 ng min–1) and As (5.51 ± 1.08 ng min–1), respectively. The PM2.5 emission rates exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)’s emission rate target guideline for ventilated conditions (0.8 mg min–1) by 1.9 × 106 to 23 × 106 mg min–1, and the highest PM2.5 emission factor, 0.032 ± 0.016 kg-PM2.5 kg-fuel–1 y–1, which was exhibited by the MKP, surpassed values in the literature by three orders of magnitude.

Keywords: Emission inventory, Emission factor, dilution tunnel, Particulate matter, Air quality


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