Na Zhao1, Gang Wang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2,3, Guohao Li4,5, Jianlei Lang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.6 

1 Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
2 Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
3 Shanghai Key Lab for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
4 Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037, China
5 Key Laboratory of Beijing on VOC Pollution Control Technology and Application of Urban Atmosphere, Beijing 100037, China
6 Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

Received: September 1, 2020
Revised: January 30, 2021
Accepted: January 31, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||  

  • Download: PDF

Cite this article:

Zhao, N., Wang, G., Li, G., Lang, J. (2021). Trends in Air Pollutant Concentrations and the Impact of Meteorology in Shandong Province, Coastal China, during 2013-2019. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • Five criteria pollutants concentrations decreased sharply before 2017, then slowly.
  • O3 concentration increased by 72.7% in 2019 compared with that of 2013.
  • High temperature, low humidity, and low wind were favourable for O3 formation.
  • Synergistic control of NOx and VOCs was critical to mitigating O3 pollution.
  • Meteorology was favourable for air pollutant diffusion in summer and winter.


Emissions of air pollutants have been reduced in Shandong Province of China during 2013-2019. Meteorological conditions are an important factor affecting air pollutant concentrations, but few quantitative studies have been conducted on the effects of long-term and seasonal changes in meteorological on air quality. In this study, the trends in six criteria pollutants (including SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and O3) from 2013 to 2019 in Shandong Province were analysed (PM2.5 and PM10: particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively; O3: ozone). A Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) was applied to evaluate the contributions of inter-annual and seasonal meteorological changes to the concentration reductions of six criteria pollutants. The results indicated that the concentrations of five criteria pollutants (exclude O3) decreased sharply before 2017, and then decreased slowly, while O3 concentration increased from 2013 to 2019. The concentrations of five criteria pollutants exhibited clear seasonal variations, with the highest pollution level occurring in winter and the best air quality occurring in summer, while the O3 concentration exhibited an opposite trend. The diurnal variations of the concentrations of five criteria pollutants, O3, and PM2.5/PM10 exhibited typical bimodal, unimodal, and trimodal distributions, respectively. Taking 2013 as the baseline, the contributions of inter-annual meteorological changes only contributed 3.4%-18.6% to the reductions of five criteria pollutants concentrations in 2015-2019, while had little impact on O3, indicating that reduction in emissions was the dominant factor causing the improvement in air quality during this period. The meteorological conditions were favourable for six criteria pollutants diffusion in summer and winter, and accumulation in spring and autumn during 2015-2019. Especially during winter, the contribution of the meteorological changes to the pollutant concentration reductions was larger, with a reduction of 6.5%-31.0%, excluding sulfur dioxide (SO2) in 2019 and O3.

Keywords: Air pollution, Seasonal variation, Diurnal variation, WRF/Chem, Meteorological condition

Don't forget to share this article 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal, promotes submissions of high-quality research, and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world.