Special Issue on COVID-19 Aerosol Drivers, Impacts and Mitigation (XVI)

Ata Nazari This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Moharram Jafari1, Naser Rezaei1, Sevda Arash-Azad2, Faramarz Talati1, Rahim Nejad-Rahim3, Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.4, Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary5

1 University of Tabriz, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabriz, Iran
2 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Cares, Tabriz, Iran
3 Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Department of Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, Urmia, Iran
4 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Tehran, Iran
5 Social Science Research Institute, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi 259-1292, Kanagawa-ken, Japan

Received: September 28, 2020
Revised: February 23, 2021
Accepted: April 12, 2021

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200574  

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Cite this article:

Nazari, A., Jafari, M., Rezaei, N., Arash-Azad, S., Talati, F., Nejad-Rahim, R., Taghizadeh-Hesary, F., Taghizadeh-Hesary, F. (2021). Effects of High-speed Wind, Humidity, and Temperature on the Generation of a SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol; a Novel Point of View. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 200574. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.200574


  • The importance of face mask in the prevention of viral transmission is highlighted.
  • The collision, deformation, and breakup of respiratory droplets are modeled.
  • High-speed wind and high ambient relative humidity enhance outdoor viral transmission.


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading across communities around the world. Respiratory droplet transmission is a common transmission route for many airborne diseases, including novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Wearing the face mask prevents respiratory droplet transmission. Both face mask leakage and non-use of the face mask under high-speed wind conditions can increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The respiratory droplets’ behavior during sneezing or coughing (i.e., the size and the distance between droplets) depends on face mask wearing. The respiratory droplets during coughing and sneezing break apart into extremely small respiratory droplets (i.e., cloud of aerosol) upon interaction with the high-speed wind condition. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method has been used to study the deformation and breakup of a single respiratory droplet placed in high-speed wind flow in the presence of smaller neighboring respiratory droplets. The effect of the diameter of respiratory droplets and the distance between them on the breakup mechanism has been investigated using open-source field operation and manipulation (OpenFOAM) libraries. The results are presented for the dimensionless distance and the normalized diameter of the secondary respiratory droplet in the ranges of 2 to 6 and 0.4 to 0.8, respectively. According to the results of simulations, the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 increases with a decrease in respiratory droplet breakup time. In addition, the effects of ambient relative humidity and temperature on the cloud of respiratory particles were analyzed.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Dynamic of respiratory droplets, VOF, OpenFOAM, Aerosol of viruses, Deformation and breakup, Ambient condition

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