Achchhelal Yadav1, Arti Bhatia This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Sudesh Yadav1, Archana Singh2, Ritu Tomer2, Ramesh Harit2, Vinod Kumar2, Bhupinder Singh2

1 Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India
2 ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India

Received: May 23, 2020
Revised: August 29, 2020
Accepted: September 4, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Yadav, A., Bhatia, A., Yadav, S., Singh, A., Tomer, R., Harit, R., Kumar, V., Singh, B. (2021). Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize under Ozone and Carbon Dioxide Interaction in North West India. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 21, 200194.


  • Ozone exposure of 27 ppmhr (AOT4O) led to a 9.5% decline in grain yield of maize.
  • Under elevated CO2 the yield increased in the C4 maize cultivars by 9–25%.
  • Elevated CO2 offset yield decline under elevated O3 by 11% (PMH-1) and 19% (HQPM-1).
  • Grain quality in both maize cultivars was not affected under the interaction ECO.


Maize is an important C4 crop and how it will respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone levels is not well documented. To understand how the growth and nutritional quality of maize will be affected under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) interaction, a field experiment was conducted under free air O3 and CO2 enrichment rings (FAOCE) growing HQPM-1 and PMH-1 maize cultivars at New Delhi, India. Each cultivar was exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 (559 ppm) alone and along with ambient and elevated O3 (71.8 ppb) throughout the growing period. Elevated CO2 (EC) significantly increased the leaf area index (10.8–22.5%), chlorophyll (11.2–17.3%) and photosynthetic rate (12.1–16.5%) in the two cultivars over the ambient. O3 exposure of 27 ppm hr (AOT4O) under elevated O3 (EO) treatment led to a significant decline in yield (p < 0.01) by 9.2% in HQPM-1 and 9.8% in PMH-1. Under elevated CO2 the increase in grain yield was higher under HQPM-1 (25.4%) as compared to PMH-1 (9.04%). The protein content increased under EO (8.1–12.5%) and decreased under EC (13.4–13.6%) in the two maize cultivars due to yield dilution effect. Lysine, phosphorus and potassium content of the grain significantly decreased in both the cultivars under elevated CO2. Carbohydrate and amylose concentrations in grains increased (9.9–15.5%) under EC and decreased (10.8–16.7%) under EO, however, no significant change in yield, protein, amylase, carbohydrate, lysine, potassium and phosphorus was observed under the interaction treatment ECO as compared to the ambient. After two years of study we could conclude that elevated CO2 (559 ppm) was able to offset the negative effect of elevated O3 (71 ppb) on grain yield by 11.2% in PMH-1 and by 18.8% in HQPM-1 without significantly affecting the grain quality in both the maize cultivars.

Keywords: Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), Tropospheric ozone (O3), Crop growth, Yield, Nutritional quality

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