Gantuya Ganbat1, Tseren-Ochir Soyol-Erdene This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Batbayar Jadamba3


National Committee on Reducing Environmental Pollution, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Ulaanbaatar 15160, Mongolia
Department of Environmental and Forest Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia
National Agency for Meteorology and Environmental Monitoring, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Ulaanbaatar 15160, Mongolia

Received: April 24, 2020
Revised: August 12, 2020
Accepted: August 13, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Ganbat, G., Soyol-Erdene, T.O. and Jadamba, B. (2020). Recent Improvement in Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 2280–2288.


  • Atmospheric PM concentrations from Jan 2014 to Feb 2020 are investigated.
  • The Mongolian Government takes various measures to combat air pollution.
  • Effects of the transition from raw coal to briquette fuel are seen in PM reductions.
  • Maximum PM2.5 and PM10 are reduced from 46% and 55% for winter 2019/2020.
  • Days with high PM concentrations in Ulaanbaatar were significantly reduced.


Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, has occasionally been considered the most polluted city in the world. Approximately 46% of the population resides in Ulaanbaatar, and over half of the population living in ger (traditional yurt dwelling) areas consumes raw coal, which leads to an increase in ambient air pollutants. The Government of Mongolia took a series of actions to reduce air pollution; one was the ban on the consumption of raw coal beginning on 15 May 2019. In this study, improvement in particulate matter (PM) air quality was shortly studied by assessing the hourly data for the last six years, from January 2014 to February 2020. The analysis exhibited a major improvement in PM concentrations during the 2019–2020 winter in Ulaanbaatar. The average PM concentrations clearly exhibited a decreasing trend in November 2019–February 2020 compared to the previous five years. The maximum PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were reduced to 46% and 55%, respectively, compared to the mean maximum values of the previous five years. The most prominent occurrence frequency of PM concentrations shifted to a lower concentration range. Although a PM pollution reduction was seen during the 2019–2020 winter, further air quality improvement can be obtained by taking a set of multiple actions with accurate planning management.

Keywords: particulate matter; Improvement in air quality; Reductions in PM concentrations; Ulaanbaatar; Mongolia.


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Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :2280 -2288 .  

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