Sungwoon Jung1, Sunmoon Kim2, Yunsung Lim2, Jongtae Lee2, Taekho Chung2, Heekyoung Hong2, Sunhee Mun2, Seunghwan Lee2, Woojun Jang2, Jaehyun Lim This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1 Division of Global Environment Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
2 Transportation Pollution Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea

Received: April 1, 2020
Revised: June 21, 2020
Accepted: June 22, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Jung, S., Kim, S., Lim, Y., Lee, J., Chung, T., Hong, H., Mun, S., Lee, S., Jang, W. and Lim, J. (2020). Emission Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Construction Equipment. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.


  • Emission characteristics of HAPs from non-road mobile sources were investigated.
  • Among engine and PEMS with Tier 3 and 4 standards, emissions were lower in latter.
  • Alkanes dominated NMVOCs in emissions due to total of 23 individual species.
  • Formaldehyde emissions were higher compared to the other pollutants.
  • Formaldehyde and benzene need to be controlled due to considerable health risks.


Mobile sources of air pollution, the non-road sector has been insufficiently investigated in terms of emission characteristics compared to the on-road sector. In the present study, a diesel engine complying with Tier 3 emission standards was tested with various driving modes (KC1-8, NRSC, NRTC) on an engine dynamometer. Further, two excavators, complying with Tier 3 and Tier 4 emission standards, equipped with a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were tested under real working and driving conditions. Emission characteristics of regulated pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as HAPs speciation were determined. The regulated pollutant emissions were the highest in the NRTC mode due to the rapid changes of engine load and speed during the transition period. Carbon monoxide (CO), NMHC, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from the PEMS complying with Tier 4 emission standards were lower than the engine and PEMS for Tier 3 due to the after-treatment systems involving diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR). Alkanes dominated the non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions; a total of 23 individual alkane species were detected. The after-treatment systems, the operation conditions of the engine, and the construction equipment significantly affected the composition of the NMVOCs emissions. Formaldehyde comprised the highest portion of aldehydes. Among the particle phase PAH emissions, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and naphthalene were detected, while the gas phase PAH emissions were estimated using models. In the case of HAPs speciation, formaldehyde emissions were higher compared to the other pollutants. Hence, pollutants, such as formaldehyde and benzene, need to be controlled for non-road sources as well as construction equipment, owing to their considerable health risks. Furthermore, these results will help establish a national emission inventory system for unregulated pollutants.

Keywords: Diesel engine; Engine dynamometer; Excavator; Portable emission measurement system; Hazardous air pollutants.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20:-. 

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