Sungwoon Jung1, Sunmoon Kim2, Yunsung Lim2, Jongtae Lee2, Taekho Chung2, Heekyoung Hong2, Sunhee Mun2, Seunghwan Lee2, Woojun Jang2, Jaehyun Lim This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1 Division of Global Environment Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
2 Transportation Pollution Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea


Received: April 1, 2020
Revised: June 21, 2020
Accepted: June 22, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Jung, S., Kim, S., Lim, Y., Lee, J., Chung, T., Hong, H., Mun, S., Lee, S., Jang, W. and Lim, J. (2020). Emission Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Construction Equipment. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 2012–2024.


  • Emission characteristics of HAPs from non-road mobile sources were investigated.
  • Among engine and PEMS with Tier 3 and 4 standards, emissions were lower in latter.
  • Alkanes dominated NMVOCs in emissions due to total of 23 individual species.
  • Formaldehyde emissions were higher compared to the other pollutants.
  • Formaldehyde and benzene need to be controlled due to considerable health risks.


The emission characteristics of mobile air pollution sources belonging to the non-road sector have yet to be thoroughly investigated, especially when compared to those of on-road vehicles. Hence, the present study employed an engine dynamometer to evaluate the emissions of a diesel engine complying with Tier 3 standards during various driving modes (KC1-8, NRSC, and NRTC) and a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) to assess those of two excavators, one complying with Tier 3 and the other with Tier 4 standards, during real-world working and driving conditions. The characteristics and chemical composition of the emitted regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM)) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were then determined. For the regulated pollutants, NRTC mode generated the highest emissions owing to the rapid changes in engine load and speed during transitions. As a result of the after-treatment systems, which utilized a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions from the Tier 4-compliant excavator were lower than those from the Tier 3-compliant diesel engine and excavator. The operating conditions of the diesel engine and construction equipment as well as the after-treatment systems significantly affected the composition of the non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions, which were dominated by alkanes that comprised 23 detected species. Sampling the particle-phase PAHs, we found phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and naphthalene; furthermore, we estimated the concentrations of the gas-phase PAHs with models to obtain the total PAH concentrations. Formaldehyde, which contributed the largest fraction of the aldehydes, was more abundant than the other species. Thus, emissions from non-road sources, including construction equipment, must be controlled because of the considerable health risks from pollutants such as formaldehyde and benzene. Our results will aid in the establishment of a national emission inventory for HAPs.

Keywords: Engine dynamometer; Diesel engine; Portable emissions measurement system; Excavator; Hazardous air pollutants.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :2012 -2024 .  

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