Special Session on Pulmonary and Neurological Health Impacts from Airborne Particulate Matter (III)

Khairul Nizam Mohd Isa1,2, Zailina Hashim This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Juliana Jalaludin1, Dan Norbäck3, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Jabbar4, Jamal Hisham Hashim5


1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Environmental Health Research Cluster (EHRc), Environmental Healthcare Section, Institute of Medical Science Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
4 Department of Population Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
5 Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Life Science, Universiti Selangor, Shah Alam Campus, Seksyen 7, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Received: March 31, 2020
Revised: August 4, 2020
Accepted: August 17, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.03.0128  

Cite this article:

Mohd Isa, K.N., Hashim, Z., Jalaludin, J., Norbäck, D., Jabbar, M.A. and Hashim, J.H. (2020). The Impact of Exposure to Indoor Pollutants on Allergy and Lung Inflammation among School Children in Selangor, Malaysia: An Evaluation Using Factor Analysis. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 2371–2383. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.03.0128


  • PM10 and PM2.5 influenced the inflammation of school children’s lungs.
  • The PCA suggested that PM10 was the prominent contributor for elevation of FeNO level.
  • The SPC analysis able to predict the pattern of FeNO levels based on PM10 and PM2.5.


A cross-sectional study of 470, 14-year-old students from 8 secondary schools located in sub-urban and urban areas in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia was undertaken to determine the impact of atmospheric indoor air pollutants on atopy, asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung inflammation among school children. The students were surveyed using ISAAC and ECRHS questionnaires, their FeNO levels were measured and allergic skin prick tests were conducted. Active and passive sampling was used to measure the classroom indoor air concentration of NO2, CO2, formaldehyde, PM10, PM2.5, temperature and relative humidity. Linear mixed model, two-levels multiple logistic regression, PCA and SPC were applied to determine the complex relationship between respiratory symptoms, personal factors, FeNO levels and atmospheric indoor pollutants. 20.6% of students reported daytime breathlessness and 55.5% reported having rhinitis in the last 12 months. Atopy was prevalent in 57.7% of students, with predominant sensitization to Derp1 (51.9%) and Derf1 (47.9%) among doctor’s diagnosed asthmatic students. Indoor air pollutants in urban area schools were significantly higher than those in sub-urban areas (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between exposure to PM10 (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.33–5.30) with skin allergy symptoms in the past 12 months. The PCA suggested that the most prominent factor associated with increasing FeNO levels was PM10, with 73.5% of the variation. SPC predicted the pattern of FeNO at an upper confidence limit (UCL) of 104.21 ppb with increasing PM10 concentration in the classroom (UCL = 40.23 µg m3). Exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 significantly influenced the inflammation of the school children’s lungs. Moreover, there were associations between self-reported wheezing, daytime and nocturnal attack of breathlessness with doctor’s diagnosed asthma among school children.

Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Indoor pollutants; Principle component analysis.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :2371 -2383 . https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.03.0128  

Don't forget to share this article 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

Latest coronavirus research from Aerosol and Air Quality Research

2018 Impact Factor: 2.735

5-Year Impact Factor: 2.827

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal, promotes submissions of high-quality research, and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world.