Xiaoyong Liu1, 2, 4, Xiaole Pan This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Zifa Wang1, 2, 5, Hong He1, 3, Dawei Wang2, Hang Liu2, 4, Yu Tian2, 4, Weiling Xiang2, Jie Li2


1 Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
3 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
5 College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China 


Received: March 29, 2020
Revised: August 16, 2020
Accepted: August 16, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.03.0124  


  • SO2 oxidation pathways changed in different RH.
  • Photochemical reactions were responsible for nitrate formation.
  • Primary aerosols emissions were enhanced during the haze.
  • Local emission was the largest potential source area for regional haze.


North China has been suffering from severe air pollutions recently. A comprehensive field experiment was performed in Dec. 2017 in a typical industrial city (Shahe, 114.5° N, 36.85° E) that was characterized by intensive NOx emissions due to the local glassmaking industry. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) was 121.6 ± 91.8 µg m–3 during the study period. The average mass concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in PM2.5 were 21.4 ± 16.3 and 15.9 ± 20.9 µg m–3, respectively. The high mass concentration of sulfate mainly resulted from the oxidation of SO2. In low RH (<40%), SO2 oxidation pathways mainly included gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions. In high RH (>40%), SO2 oxidation related to aqueous was enhanced. In the daytime, nitrate mainly resulted from photochemical reactions because the nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) increased with decreasing RH. Mass concentrations of optical organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) were 50.4 ± 31.1, 5.8 ± 4.4 and 12.8 ± 10.1 μgC m-3, respectively. The EC tracer method revealed that OC from the primary emission accounted for approximately 72% of the total OC. It was identified that there were intense industrial activities near the site in the northeast direction. The results of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model analysis indicated that the local area was the main potential source area for PM2.5 in the haze.


Keywords: Air pollution; Chemical composition; North China Plain; Potential source analysis

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :-. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.03.0124  

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