Putri Anis Syahira Mohamad Jamil, Nur Athirah Diyana Mohammad Yusof, Karmegam Karuppiah This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Irniza Rasdi, Juliana Jalaludin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Vivien How, Sivasankar Sambasivam, Nurul Maizura Hashim

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia



Received: February 26, 2020
Revised: June 30, 2020
Accepted: July 21, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.02.0080  

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Cite this article:

Mohamad Jamil, P.A.S., Mohammad Yusof, N.A.D., Karuppiah, K., Rasdi, I., Jalaludin, J., Mohd Tamrin, S.B., How, V., Sambasivam, S. and Hashim, N.M. (2020). Malaysian Traffic Police in Highly Populated Areas: Is it Safe Working Outdoors on a Daily Basis? Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 2003–2011. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.02.0080


  • Traffic police mainly work on regulating traffic flow in congested junctions.
  • They are exposed to unhealthy air for long hours of working outdoors.
  • PM10 concentration recorded above the Malaysian standard every year.
  • The increasing trends in number of vehicles can be seen every year in both states.
  • A strong positive correlation of vehicles on road is seen with CO, O3 and NO2.


Previous studies have reported on the increment in the concentration levels of outdoor air pollution affecting the lung functions among traffic police as they work outdoors, on an average, for 12 hours daily. This paper provides an analysis of the outdoor air pollutant trends. It is novel in considering how it can be used to understand the impact on the 1,149 Malaysian Traffic Police in the states of Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Johor Bahru (JB). The study used 165, 604 data from a nine-year database (2009–2017) of selected Malaysian air monitoring stations in KL and JB. The statistical analysis showed that the yearly trends of PM10 were above the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG) standard while the SO2, O3, NO2, and CO readings were below the standard. An increasing trend was noticed in the total number of vehicles in both states from 2009 to 2017. All the pollutants were positively correlated with each other, indicating that most of the pollutants are from similar sources. There is a strong positive correlation between the total number of vehicles and CO, NO2, and O3. This study proves the trends and consequences of outdoor air pollutants coupled with the rise in the number of vehicles that can affect respiratory health and well-being of the traffic police personnel. As a resolution to this, an efficient risk control such as air monitoring system for traffic police is necessary. The findings of this study will facilitate its usefulness to the authorities, management, policymakers, and researchers in the years ahead.

Keywords: Traffic-related air pollutant; Air quality; Hazardous air pollutants; Respiratory health; PM10.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :2003 -2011 . https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.02.0080  

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