Eleftheria Chalvatzaki1, Sofia Eirini Chatoutsidou1, Vânia Martins2, Tiago Faria2, Evangelia Diapouli3, Manousos Manousakas3, Susana Marta Almeida2, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis3, Mihalis Lazaridis This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete, Greece
Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, Km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, Environmental Radioactivity Lab, N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece


 

Received: January 16, 2020
Revised: March 25, 2020
Accepted: April 6, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0022 

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Cite this article:

Chalvatzaki, E., Chatoutsidou, S.E., Martins, V., Faria, T., Diapouli, E., Manousakas, M., Almeida, S.M., Eleftheriadis, K. and Lazaridis, M. (2020). Assessment of the Personal Dose Received by School Children due to PM10 Air Pollution in Lisbon. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 1384–1397. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0022


HIGHLIGHTS

  • The personal dose of PM10 and several bound metals were calculated for schoolchildren.
  • Students were considered to spend time in house-indoor and school-indoor/outdoor.
  • The weekly deposited dose of PM10 ranged from 1,156 μg to 2,004 μg.
  • Higher doses for PM10-bound metals were associated with increased concentrations.
  • Indoor house and school environments had the higher contribution to the weekly dose.
 

ABSTRACT


Investigation of the personal dose caused by air pollution in children is important due to their vulnerability. Exposure to PM10 and its components, particularly certain metals, may pose significant health risks therefore many studies have focused on measuring the ambient indoor/outdoor PM10 concentrations in school environments. However, little research has aimed at assessing the resultant personal dose. Hence, this study applied a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) to predict the personal dose received by students in five primary schools in Lisbon, Portugal. The calculations were performed for PM10 and PM10-bound metals, and the exposed subjects were assumed to be 10-year-old nose breathers. A realistic exposure scenario involving three different settings (the indoor home, indoor school and outdoor school microenvironments) was implemented for an exposure period of one week (Monday–Sunday). Although the students spent only 24% of their total time inside a school (vs. 73% at home), this environment contributed 44% on average to the weekly deposited dose of PM10, providing further evidence that indoor exposure at schools is a major contributor to the total dose. The modeling results showed that the cumulative deposited doses in the respiratory tract (RT) reached as high as 2,004 µg, 0.16 µg, 0.65 µg, 0.58 µg and 0.06 µg for PM10, Cr, Mn, Pb and Ni, respectively, after one week.


Keywords: Particulate matter; Metals; Child; School; Dosimetry model.



Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20:1384-1397. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0022 


Impact Factor: 2.735

5-Year Impact Factor: 2.827


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