Jiawei Ma1, Wei-Chung Su This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.2, Yi Chen2, Yidan Shang1, Jingliang Dong1, Jiyuan Tu1, Lin Tian This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1

1 School of Engineering – Mechanical and Automotive, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia
2 School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas - Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA


 

Received: January 12, 2020
Revised: April 10, 2020
Accepted: June 16, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0015  

  • Download: PDF


Cite this article:

Ma, J., Su, W.C., Chen, Y., Shang, Y., Dong, J., Tu, J. and Tian, L. (2020). A Combined Computational and Experimental Study on Nanoparticle Transport and Partitioning in the Human Trachea and Upper Bronchial Airways. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0015


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Nanoparticle transport and partition to airway morphology was investigated.
  • Small-scale wall shear fluctuation is only seen in the anatomical model.
  • Nanoparticle mixing in the anatomical model was significantly more efficient.
  • Flow and particle partition in lung lobes were not necessary in proportion.
  • Simulated flow partition among 5 lobar airways was dependent on boundary condition.
 

ABSTRACT


In the past few decades, the transport and deposition of aerosol in the human respiratory tract has been a crucial area of research, resulting in the identification of the toxicity pathways of inhaled pollutants and facilitating the design of efficient drug delivery systems for targeted treatment. Owing to the complexity of the tracheobronchial tree, experimental studies in vivo/in vitro have been extremely limited; hence, detailed data on the airflow and particle dynamics have been obtained predominantly through computational investigations. With rapid advances in medical imaging and computational capacities, sophisticated human tracheobronchial trees that include the 6th, 7th or 15th generation have been increasingly described in the literature. However, continued progress in anatomical reconstruction and mathematical idealized modeling, the two most frequently employed approaches to airway modeling, requires a detailed fundamental analysis on the morphology-induced sensitivity of particle-flow partitioning, and particle deposition in the airways. This study combined numerical and experimental investigations on the transport, deposition and partitioning of nanoparticles in the upper tracheobronchial airways. An anatomically realistic airway was reconstructed via CT scans, and a simplified numerical model was developed that incorporated physical irregularities in the trachea and assessed new boundary conditions to simulate air partitioning in the lobar bronchi, and flow and particle dynamics. An experiment measuring the penetration and deposition of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles in the anatomical and idealized airway models was conducted in parallel, and the results were compared with the computational predictions.


Keywords: Airway morphology; Nanoparticle transport; Deposition and partitioning; Tracheobronchial tree; Computational modeling; Experimental measurement.



REFERENCES


  1. Asgharian, B. and Price, O.T. (2007). Deposition of ultrafine (nano) particles in the human lung. Inhalation Toxicol. 19: 1045–1054. [Publisher Site]

  2. Balásházy, I., Hofmann, W. and Heistracher, T. (1999). Computation of local enhancement factors for the quantification of particle deposition patterns in airway bifurcations. J. Aerosol Sci. 30: 185–203. [Publisher Site]

  3. Cheng, Y.S, Zhou, Y. and Chen, B.T. (1999). Particle deposition in a cast of human oral airways. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 31: 286–300. [Publisher Site]

  4. Cohen., B.S., Sussman, R.G. and Lippmann, M. (1990). Ultrafine particle deposition in a human tracheobronchial cast. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12: 1082–1091. [Publisher Site]

  5. Comer, J.K., Kleinstreuer, C. and Kim, C.S. (2001). Flow structures and particle deposition patterns in double-bifurcation airway models. Part 2: Aerosol transport and deposition. J. Fluid Mech. 435: 55–80. [Publisher Site]

  6. Dong, J., Shang, Y., Tian, L., Inthavong, K., Qiu, D. and Tu, J. (2019a). Ultrafine particle deposition in a realistic human airway at multiple inhalation scenarios. Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 35: e3215:1–15. [Publisher Site]

  7. Dong, J., Tian, L. and Ahmadi, G. (2019b). Numerical assessment of respiratory airway exposure risks to diesel exhaust particles. Exp. Comput. Multiphase Flow 1: 51–59. [Publisher Site]

  8. Frederix, E.M.A., Kuczaj, A.K., Nordlund, M., Bělka, M., Lizal, F., Jedelský, J., Elcner, J., Jícha, M. and Geurts, B.J. (2018). Simulation of size-dependent aerosol deposition in a realistic model of the upper human airways. J. Aerosol Sci. 115: 29–45. [Publisher Site]

  9. Gu, X., Wen, J., Wang, M., Jian, G., Zheng, G. and Wang, S. (2019). Numerical investigation of unsteady particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity during inhalation. Exp. Comput. Multiphase Flow 1: 39–50. [Publisher Site]

  10. Häuβermann, S., Bailey, A.G., Bailey, M.R., Etherington, G. and Youngman, M. (2002). The influence of breathing patterns on particle deposition in a nasal replica cast. J. Aerosol Sci. 33: 923–933. [Publisher Site]

  11. Heistracher, T. and Hofmann, W. (1995). Physiological realistic models of bronchial airway bifurcations. J. Aerosol Sci. 26: 497–509. [Publisher Site]

  12. Inthavong, K., Choi, L.T., Tu, J., Ding, S. and Thien, F. (2010). Micron particle deposition in a tracheobronchial airway model under different breathing conditions. Med. Eng. Phys. 32: 1198–1212. [Publisher Site]

  13. Inthavong, K., Shang, Y. and Tu, J. (2014). Surface mapping for visualization of wall stresses during inhalation in a human nasal cavity. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 190: 54–61. [Publisher Site]

  14. Kitaoka, H., Takaki, R. and Suki, B. (1999). A three-dimensional model of the human airway tree. J. Appl. Physiol. 87: 2207–2217. [Publisher Site]

  15. Kitaoka, H., Koc, S., Tetsumoto, S., Koumo, S., Hirata, H. and Kijima, T. (2013). 4D model generator of the human lung, "Lung4Cer". 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). pp. 453–456. [Publisher Site]

  16. Kleinstreuer, C. and Zhang, Z. (2003). Targeted drug aeroso deposition analysis for a four-generation lung airway model with hemispherical tumors. J. Biomech. Eng. 125: 197–206. [Publisher Site]

  17. Koullapis, P.G., Kassinos, S.C., Bivolarova, M.P. and Melikov, A.K. (2016). Particle deposition in a realistic geometry of the human conducting airways: Effects of inlet velocity profile, inhalation flow rate and electrostatic charge. J. Biomech. 49: 2201–2212. [Publisher Site]

  18. Li, A. and Ahmadi, G. (1992). Dispersion and deposition of spherical particles from point sources in a turbulent channel flow. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 16: 209–226. [Publisher Site]

  19. Lintermann, A. and Schröder, W. (2017). Simulation of aerosol particle deposition in the upper human tracheobronchial tract. Eur. J. Mech. B. Fluids 63: 73–89. [Publisher Site]

  20. Longest, P.W. and Holbrook, L.T. (2012). In silico models of aerosol delivery to the respiratory tract—development and applications. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 64: 296–311. [Publisher Site]

  21. Martonen, T.B., Yang, Y. and Xue, Z.Q. (1994). Influences of cartilaginous rings on tracheobronchial fluid dynamics. Inhalation Toxicol. 6: 185–203. [Publisher Site]

  22. Phalen, R.F. and Raabe, O.G. (2016). The evolution of inhaled particle does modeling: A review. J. Aerosol Sci. 99: 7–13. [Publisher Site]

  23. Phillips, C.G. and Kaye, S.R. (1997). On the asymmetry of bifurcations in the bronchial tree. Respir. Physiol. 107: 85–98. [Publisher Site]

  24. Shang, Y., Tian, L., Fan, Y., Dong, J., Inthavong, K. and Tu, J. (2018). Effect of morphology on nanoparticle transport and deposition in human upper tracheobronchial airways. J. Comput. Multiphase Flows 10: 83–96. [Publisher Site]

  25. Smith, S., Cheng, Y-S. and Yeh, H. C. (2001). Deposition of ultrafine particles in human tracheobronchial airways of adults and children. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35: 697–709. [Publisher Site]

  26. Su, W.C. and Cheng, Y.S. (2015). Estimation of Carbon nanotubes deposition in a human respiratory tract replica. J. Aerosol Sci. 79: 72–85. [Publisher Site]

  27. Su, W.C., Ku, B.K., Kulkarni, P. and Cheng, Y.S. (2016). Deposition of graphene nanoparticle in human upper airways. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 13: 48–59. [Publisher Site]

  28. Tian, L. and Ahmadi, G. (2007). Particle deposition in turbulent duct flows – comparisons of different model predications. J. Aerosol Sci. 38: 377–397. [Publisher Site]

  29. Tian, L. and Ahmadi, G. (2012). Transport and deposition of micron and nano particles in human tracheobronchial tree by an asymmetric multi-level bifurcation model. J. Comput. Multiphase Flows 4: 159–182. [Publisher Site]

  30. Tian, L., Shang, Y., Chen, R., Bai, R., Chen, C., Inthavong, K. and Tu, J. (2017a). A combined experimental and numerical study on upper airway dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles from an electrical discharge machine shop. Part. Fibre Toxicol. 14: 1–18. [Publisher Site]

  31. Tian, L., Shang, Y., Dong, J., Inthavong, K. and Tu, J. (2017b). Human nasal olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles at low to moderate breathing rate. J. Aerosol Sci. 113: 189–200. [Publisher Site]

  32. Tian, L., Shang, Y., Chen, R., Bai, R., Chen, C., Inthavong, K. and Tu, J. (2019). Correlation of regional deposition dosage for inhaled nanoparticles in human and rat olfactory. Part. Fibre Toxicol. 16: 1–17. [Publisher Site]

  33. Tu, J., Inthavong, K. and Ahmadi, G. (2013). Computational fluid and particle dynamics in the human respiratory system, Springer Netherlands, New York.

  34. Weibel, E.R. (1963). Morphometry of the human lung, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York.

  35. Xu, X., Shang, Y., Tian, L., Weng, W. and Tu, J. (2019). Inhalation health risk assessment for the human tracheobronchial tree under PM exposure in a bus stop scene. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 1365–1376. [Publisher Site]

  36. Zhang, Y. and Finlay, W.H. (2005). Measurement of the effect of cartilaginous rings on particle deposition in a proximal lung bifurcation model. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39: 394–399. [Publisher Site]

  37. Zhang, Z., Kleinstreuer, C., Donohue, J.F. and Kim, C.S. (2005). Comparison of micro- and nano-size particle depositions in a human upper airway model. J. Aerosol Sci. 36: 211–233. [Publisher Site]

  38. Zhou, Y. and Cheng, Y.S. (2005). Particle deposition in a cast of human tracheobronchial airways. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39: 492–500. [Publisher Site]

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :-. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2020.01.0015  


Don't forget to share this article 

 

Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.