Di Liu1, Matthias Vonwiller2, Jun Li  1, Junwen Liu3, Sönke Szidat2, Yanlin Zhang4, Chongguo Tian5, Yinjun Chen6, Zhineng Cheng1, Guangcai Zhong1, Pingqing Fu7, Gan Zhang1

1 State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong province Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Berne 3012, Switzerland
3 Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China
4 Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, International Joint Laboratory on Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5 Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
6 State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Cities’ Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
7 Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China


Received: December 20, 2019
Revised: June 2, 2020
Accepted: June 6, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.12.0642 

Cite this article:

Liu, D., Vonwiller, M., Li, J., Liu, J, Szidat, S., Zhang, Y., Tian, C., Chen, Y., Cheng, Z, Zhong, G., Fu, P. and Zhang, G. (2020). Fossil and Non-fossil Fuel Sources of Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosols in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou: Seasonal Carbon-source Variation. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.12.0642



We measured the radiocarbon isotopic signals in various fractions of carbonaceous aerosols sampled among megacities in China (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) during four seasons from 2013 to 2014. Estimated contribution of two source of fossil fuel (FF) and non-fossil fuel (NF) to carbonaceous aerosol was based on radiocarbon content in organic carbon (OC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) and elemental carbon (EC). We found a greater contribution of NF (> 55%) sources in all cities during autumn. However, source seasonality differed among cities during the other seasons. During winter, FF contributed largely to the majority of pollution in Beijing (64%), probably due to increased emission from coal combustion for heating. The average contributions of EC, WSOC and WIOC from fossil fuel accounting for ~ 10%, 35%, 19% of total carbon (TC). NF contributed to the majority in Guangzhou (63%), while FF contributed slightly more than NF in Shanghai (54%). During spring and summer, Beijing and Guangzhou showed similar patterns, with higher contributions from FF (~55% and ~63%, respectively) than NF emission. FF made the greatest contribution (71%) in Shanghai during summer with limited number size for radiocarbon analysis and with ignorable pollution due to fossil fuel combustion (i.e., industrial, vehicular, fishing, and large vessels).

Keywords: Carbonaceous aerosol; Fine aerosol; Source apportionment.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20:-. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.12.0642 

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