Muhayatun Santoso This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1, Diah Dwiana Lestiani1, Syukria Kurniawati1, Endah Damastuti1, Indah Kusmartini1, Djoko Prakoso1, Dyah Kumala Sari1, Philip K. Hopke2, Rita Mukhtar3, Tamrin4, Agus Tjahyadi5, Sukadi6, Nurkholik7, Dimas Ageng S.8, Dwi Wahyudi9, Timora Diliyani Sitorus10, Jasmiyati11, Ahmad Riadi12, Jen Supriyanto13, Nurhayana Dahyar14, Stenly Sondakh15, Karelise Hogendorp16, Nurdian Wahyuni17, I. Gede Bejawan18, Lalu Syakhrizal Suprayadi19

Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Bandung, Indonesia
University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Ministry of Environmental and Forestry, Puspiptek, Serpong, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Jakarta Province, Jl. Casablanca Kav. 1 Kuningan Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of West Java Province, Jl Naripan 25 Bandung, Indonesia
Center for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Center Java Province, Jl. Setiabudi, Komplek Diklat, Semarang, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of East Java Province, Jl. Wisata Menanggal 38, Surabaya, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Surabaya city, Jl. Gubeng, Surabaya, Indonesia
10 The Environmental Protection Agency of North Sumatra Province, Medan, Indonesia
11 The Environmental Protection Agency of Pekanbaru City, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
12 The Environmental Protection Agency of Palangka Raya City, Jl. Tjilik Riwut, Palangka Raya
13 The Environmental Protection Agency of Balikpapan City, Jl. Jendral Sudirman, Balikpapan, Indonesia
14 The Environmental Protection Agency of Eco region of Sulawesi Maluku, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan, Makassar, Indonesia|
15 The Environmental Protection Agency of North Sulawesi Province, Jl. 17 Agustus, Manado, Indonesia
16 The Environmental Protection Agency of Maluku Province, Ambon, Indonesia
17 The Environmental Protection Agency of Papua Province, Jayapura, Indonesia
18 The Environmental Protection Agency of Eco Region of Bali Nusa Tenggara, Denpasar Bali, Indonesia
19 The Environmental Protection Agency of West Nusa Tenggara Province, Mataram, Indonesia

Received: November 6, 2019
Revised: June 12, 2020
Accepted: June 14, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Santoso, M., Lestiani, D.D., Kurniawati, S., Damastuti, E., Kusmartini, I., Prakoso, D., Sari, D.K., Hopke, P.K., Mukhtar, R., Tamrin, Tjahyadi, A., Sukadi, Nurkholik, Ageng S., D., Wahyudi, D., Sitorus, T.D., Jasmiyati, Riadi, A., Supriyanto, J., Dahyar, N., Sondakh, S., Hogendorp, K., Wahyuni, N., Bejawan, I.G. and Suprayadi, L.S. (2020).  Assessment of Urban Air Quality in Indonesia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res.



  • Assessment has been made of urban air quality in 16 Indonesian cities.
  • PM2.5 concentrations on Java generally exceeded the air quality standards.
  • Volcanic eruptions and forest fires produced locally high PM2.5 concentrations.
  • Average BC contributions to PM2.5 ranged from 15–26%.
  • Heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in Surabaya and Tangerang.


Assessment of Indonesian urban air quality has been performed over a multiyear period (2010–2017) in sixteen large Indonesian cities covering the islands of Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua. Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) were collected once a week for 24 hrs using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler in two size fractions: < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and 2.5 to 10 µm (PM2.5-10). These samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental composition. The results showed that the majority of the annual concentrations of PM2.5 at the Java sites (Bandung, Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya) exceeded the annual average Indonesian air quality standard (15 µg m-3), while for other sites, the concentrations were lower than the standards except in Pekanbaru and Palangka Raya. During the forest fires episodes in 2015, the daily concentrations of PM2.5 in Pekanbaru and Palangka Raya exceeded the daily average Indonesian standard (65 µg m-3). The average BC fraction of PM2.5 ranged from 15% to 26%, which indicates BC as major component of the PM2.5 associated with traffic emissions and biomass burning. The distributions of concentrations of major elements in PM2.5 including Si, S, K, Fe, Zn, and Pb varied widely from site to site. All sites have enhanced levels of crustal elements Si driven by unpaved roads and volcanic eruptions, and S contributed from vehicle fuel, forest fires and volcanic emission. The heavily industrialized sites have significantly higher levels of heavy metals (Fe, Zn and Pb – in Surabaya) and (Pb – in Tangerang), demonstrating the impact of the local industrial emission on air quality. These findings represent an important survey of Indonesia’s particulate matter concentrations and compositions, and provide a scientific basis for designing and revising various air quality policies in Indonesia, including an early warning system for severe air quality events.

Keywords: PM2.5; PM10; BC; Chemical composition; Indonesia.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20:-. 

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