Muhayatun Santoso This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.1 , Diah Dwiana Lestiani1, Syukria Kurniawati1, Endah Damastuti1, Indah Kusmartini1, Djoko Prakoso Dwi Atmodjo1, Dyah Kumala Sari1, Philip K. Hopke2, Rita Mukhtar3, Tamrin Muhtarom4, Agus Tjahyadi5, Sukadi Parian6, Nur Kholik7, Dimas Ageng Sutrisno8, Dwi Wahyudi9, Timora Diliyani Sitorus10, Jasmiyati Djamilus11, Ahmad Riadi12, Jen Supriyanto13, Nurhayana Dahyar14, Stenly Sondakh15, Karelise Hogendorp16, Nurdian Wahyuni17, I. Gede Bejawan18, Lalu Syakhrizal Suprayadi19

Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Bandung, Indonesia
University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Ministry of Environmental and Forestry, Puspiptek, Serpong, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Jakarta, Jl. Casablanca Kav. 1 Kuningan Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of West Java, Jl Naripan 25 Bandung, Indonesia
Center for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Center Java, Jl. Setiabudi, Komplek Diklat, Semarang, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of East Java, Jl. Wisata Menanggal 38, Surabaya, Indonesia
The Environmental Protection Agency of Surabaya city, Jl. Gubeng, Surabaya, Indonesia
10 The Environmental Protection Agency of North Sumatra, Medan, Indonesia
11 The Environmental Protection Agency of Pekanbaru City, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
12 The Environmental Protection Agency of Palangka Raya City, Jl. Tjilik Riwut, Palangka Raya
13 The Environmental Protection Agency of Balikpapan City, Jl. Jendral Sudirman, Balikpapan, Indonesia
14 The Environmental Protection Agency of Eco region of Sulawesi Maluku, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan, Makassar, Indonesia|
15 The Environmental Protection Agency of North Sulawesi, Jl. 17 Agustus, Manado, Indonesia
16 The Environmental Protection Agency of Maluku, Ambon, Indonesia
17 The Environmental Protection Agency of Papua, Jayapura, Indonesia
18 The Environmental Protection Agency of Eco Region of Bali Nusa Tenggara, Denpasar Bali, Indonesia
19 The Environmental Protection Agency of West Nusa Tenggara, Mataram, Indonesia

Received: November 6, 2019
Revised: June 12, 2020
Accepted: June 14, 2020

 Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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Santoso, M., Lestiani D.D., Kurniawati, S., Damastuti, E., Kusmartini, I., Atmodjo, D.P.D., Sari, D.K., Hopke, P.K., Mukhtar, R., Muhtarom, T., Tjahyadi, A., Parian, S., Kholik, N., Sutrisno, D.A., Wahyudi, D., Sitorus, T.D., Djamilus, J., Riadi, A., Supriyanto, J., Dahyar, N., Sondakh, S., Hogendorp, K., Wahyuni, N., Bejawan, I.G. and Suprayadi, L.S. (2020). Assessment of Urban Air Quality in Indonesia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 2142–2158.


  • Assessment has been made of urban air quality in 16 Indonesian cities.
  • PM2.5 concentrations on Java generally exceeded the air quality standards.
  • Volcanic eruptions and forest fires produced locally high PM2.5 concentrations.
  • Average BC contributions to PM2.5 ranged from 15–26%.
  • Heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in Surabaya and Tangerang.


This study assessed the urban air quality in 16 large Indonesian cities on the islands of Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua from 2010 till 2017. 24-h samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) in two size fractions, PM2.5 (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5-10 (2.5–10 µm in aerodynamic diameter), were collected weekly using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and then analyzed for their mass concentrations, black carbon (BC) content, and elemental compositions. The majority of the average annual PM2.5 concentrations measured at the Java sites (Bandung, Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya) exceeded the Indonesian annual ambient air quality standard (15 µg m–3), although the other tested locations, excluding Pekanbaru and Palangka Raya, exhibited values below the standard. During the forest fire episodes of 2015, the average daily PM2.5 concentrations in Pekanbaru and Palangka Raya rose above the national daily ambient standard (65 µg m–3). The percentage of BC, which is associated with traffic emission and biomass burning, averaged between 15% and 26% (a significant fraction) in the PM2.5. The concentrations of the major elements in the PM2.5, viz., Si, S, K, Fe, Zn, and Pb, varied widely from site to site, although all of the locations displayed enhanced levels of the crustal elements Si and S, which originated from unpaved roads and volcanic eruptions, and vehicle fuel, forest fires, and volcanic emissions, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, and Pb in Surabaya and Pb in Tangerang) were found at the heavily industrialized sites, demonstrating the effect of local industrial emissions on air quality. Our results, which are based on a crucial survey of PM concentrations and compositions in Indonesia, provide a scientific basis for developing and improving various air quality policies in the nation, including an early warning system for severe pollution events.

Keywords: PM2.5; PM10; BC; Chemical composition; Indonesia.

Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 :-.  

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