Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Shui-Jen Chen 1, Sheng-Lun Lin2,3,4, Kuo-Lin Huang1, Cheng-Kai Hsueh1, Chih-Chung Lin1, Po-Min Li5

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
Center for Environmental Toxin and Emerging-Contaminant Research, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan

Received: April 15, 2019
Revised: June 11, 2019
Accepted: June 11, 2019
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Cite this article:
Tsai, J.H., Chen, S.J., Lin, S.L., Huang, K.L., Hsueh, C.K., Lin, C.C. and Li, P.M. (2019). Emissions of PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Metals from a Diesel Generator Fueled with Biodiesel Converted from Used Cooking Oil. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 1555-1565.


  • PM2.5, PM2.5-bound PAHs and metals in the diesel generator exhausts were studied.
  • WCO-based biodiesel additives could lower the PM2.5, PM2.5-bound PAHs and metals.
  • W20 had the most reduction of PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound ΣPAHs and ΣBaPeq.
  • The emitted PM2.5-bound Σmetals significantly decreased when using W40.


To elucidate the characteristics of fine particulate matter pollutant emitted from a diesel engine, a fossil-based diesel fuel (D100) and two blended fuels consisting of D100 and waste cooking oil (WCO) convered biodiesel (W) are tested with a diesel engine generator at loads of 1.5 kW and 3.0 kW. The blended fuels contain 20% and 40% W and are referred to as W20 and W40, respectively. The PM2.5 emissions and their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metallic components are investigated. Experimental results show that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound ΣPAHs and Σmetals, and ΣBaPeq are generated at the 3.0 kW load, with its greater fuel consumption (FC), than the 1.5 kW load. Additionally, of the three fuels, using W20 emits the lowest concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound ΣPAHs, and ΣBaPeq. Specifically, the reduction in ΣBaPeq mainly results from the effective inhibition of HMW-BaPeq. Conversely, when using W40, the PM2.5-bound Σmetals significantly decreases, and its composition is strongly affected by the metallic content in the fuel. Although W20 and W40 exhibit higher FC (3.0% more) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC; 3.1% more) than D100, they generate lower concentrations of PM2.5 (18.1% less), PM2.5-bound ΣPAHs (22.8% less) and Σmetals (22.0% less), and ΣBaPeq (35.0% less) at both engine loads. The emission factors of these pollutants in the engine exhaust are also reduced , particularly at the higher load (3.0 kW). Accordingly, WCO-based biodiesel additives may decrease the PM2.5, PAHs, and metals exhausted by diesel engines, thus reducing the BaPeq of these emissions.

Keywords: PM2.5; Biodiesel; PAHs; Metals; Generator.


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