Xuan Zheng1,2, Xian Wu2, Liqiang He2, Xin Guo3, Ye Wu 2,4

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing 100083, China
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing 100084, China

Received: February 24, 2019
Revised: May 30, 2019
Accepted: June 12, 2019
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.02.0095  

Cite this article:
Zheng, X., Wu, X., He, L., Guo, X. and Wu, Y. (2019). Black Carbon Emissions from Light-duty Passenger Vehicles Using Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuels. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 1645-1654. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.02.0095


  • Instantaneous black carbon emissions from vehicles using ethanol blended fuels are measured.
  • Black carbon emissions of ethanol blended fuels are 7–38% lower than those of ethanol-free fuel.
  • Black carbon emissions peaks appear at the start of driving and during aggressive driving.
  • Using ethanol blended could reduce black carbon emissions during cold-start events.


Vehicular emissions of soot vary with the driving conditions and fuel properties. In 2017, China’s central government released a policy to promote ethanol blended gasoline fuels, and this policy will be rolled out nationwide in 2020. It is necessary to characterize the emission differences between traditional vehicular fuels used in China and ethanol blended fuels. In this study, black carbon (BC) emissions from three gasoline light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs) were measured using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) . This study utilized three fuels, namely, two E10 fuels and a traditional gasoline (E0). The experimental results showed that the use of E10 blends (gasoline containing 10% ethanol) reduced BC emissions by 7–38%. Based on phase-separated analysis, BC emissions in the initial driving phase and the high-speed phase (e.g., the 1st ECE-15 phase in the NEDC and the extra-high speed phase in the WLTC) represented the majority (86–96%) of the total BC emissions, and the emission factors during the 1st ECE-15 phase (NEDC) and the low-speed phase (WLTC) were 0.36 mg km–1 and 0.37 mg km–1 lower, respectively, for the ethanol-blended fuels than the ethanol-free fuel. Furthermore, we found that using ethanol-blended fuels could reduce the mass concentration of the BC emitted during cold starts, which lasted 53–95 s for the tested vehicles, by 4.28 ± 4.19 mg km–1 and 2.06 ± 0.17 mg km–1 in the NEDC and the WLTC, respectively.

Keywords: Black carbon emissions; Light duty passenger vehicles; Ethanol blended fuels; Driving conditions; Cold start.


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