Jiun-Horng Tsai1, Yung-Chen Yao2, Pei-Hsiu Huang3, Hung-Lung Chiang 3

Department of Environmental Engineering, Research Center for Climate Change and Environment Quality, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan|
Department of Occupational and Safety Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received: July 16, 2018
Revised: October 12, 2018
Accepted: November 19, 2018
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.07.0264 

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Cite this article:
Tsai, J.H., Yao, Y.C., Huang, P.H. and Chiang, H.L. (2018). Fuel Economy and Volatile Organic Compound Exhaust Emission for Motorcycles with Various Running Mileages. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 3056-3067. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.07.0264


  • Running mileage affects the fuel economy and exhaust emission of motorcycles.
  • Average fuel economy of motorcycles ranged from 29.5 to 34.7 km L–1.
  • Fuel economy decreased 1.3 km L–1 after 10000 km for the investigated motorcycles.
  • Paraffins and aromatics contributed over 80% of VOC emissions in motorcycle exhaust.
  • 67 VOC species emission increased 6.61 g L–1 per 10,000 km for the investigated motorcycles.


The implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas depends on the establishment of baseline measures for fuel economy and emission characteristics. In this study, the fuel economy of motorcycles was determined to be 34.7 ± 1.4, 32.6 ± 1.8 and 29.5 ± 2.5 km L–1 for regulation phase V, IV, and III motorcycles, respectively. For regulation phase V motorcycles, the average emission factor was 84.3 ± 40.9 g L–1 for CO, 29.4 ± 13.1 g L–1 for HC, 8.0 ± 2.3 g L–1 for NOx, and 2098 ± 109 g L–1 for CO2. A comparison of the fuel economy of regulation phase III and IV motorcycles with that of regulation phase V motorcycle showed reductions of 15% and 6.2%, corresponding to increases of 156% and 48% in CO emission, increases of 84% and 9% in HC emission, and decreases of 30% and 17% in NOx emission, respectively. Based on fuel economy, the emission factors of a total of 67 volatile organic compounds(VOCs) were 25.2 ± 8.0 g L–1 for a running mileage of 5,231 ± 4,353 km, with emissions increasing to 47.1 ± 19.8 g L–1 for a running mileage of 47,617 ± 8,568 km. The exhaust of VOC groups profiled included paraffins (38–45%), olefins (9.7–15%), aromatics (38–48%), and carbonyls (1.8–3.0%) for various running mileages. Toluene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, 1-butene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, n-pentane, and benzene were the main VOCs in motorcycle exhaust. Regarding the ozone formation potential of VOCs, 1-butene, xylene, isoprene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, propene, and 1-hexene were the most abundant species in motorcycle exhaust.

Keywords: Fuel economy; Dynamometer testing; Ozone formation potential (OFP).


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