Sarath K. Guttikunda 1,2, Pallavi Pant3, K.A. Nishadh1, Puja Jawahar1

Urban Emissions, New Delhi, India
Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA

Received: July 13, 2018
Revised: October 4, 2018
Accepted: November 23, 2018
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Cite this article:
Guttikunda, S.K., Pant, P., Nishadh, K. and Jawahar, P. (2019). Particulate Matter Source Contributions for Raipur-Durg-Bhilai Region of Chhattisgarh, India. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 528-540.


  • Multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the Greater Raipur region, at 1 km grid resolution.
  • Modeled source contributions estimate for ambient PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations.
  • Evaluation of contributions from local sources and long-range transport.
  • Discussion on proposed pollution control measures to manage urban air quality.


In Chhattisgarh, Raipur-Durg-Bhilai (RDB) tri-city area hosts the new administrative capital of the state, interconnected by an expressway forming the industrial corridor and is one of the largest steel manufacturing hubs in India. Between 1998 and 2016, the satellite and global model data derived concentrations show a 50% increase in the overall PM2.5 pollution in the region. The average PM10 concentration measured at commercial, industrial, and residential monitoring stations is 125 ± 52 µg m–3 in 2015. None of the stations currently measure PM2.5. The annual average PM10 concentrations in 2011 is 175 ± 110 µg m–3, which translates to 28% improvement in 5 years. A multiple pollutant emissions inventory was established for this urban airshed (extending 60 km × 30 km), with annual estimates of 41,500 tons of PM2.5, 59,650 tons of PM10, 7,600 tons of SO2, 67,000 tons of NOx, 163,300 tons of CO, 118,150 tons of NMVOCs, and 3.1 million tons of CO2 for 2015, and further projected to 2030 under business as usual conditions. The ambient source contributions were calculated using WRF-CAMx chemical transport modeling system, highlighting the heavy industries (mostly steel) (23%), followed by transport (including on road dust) (29%), domestic cooking and heating (12%), open waste burning (6%), as the key air pollution sources in the urban area. The city has an estimated 26% of the ambient annual PM2.5 pollution originating outside the urban airshed - this contribution is mostly coming from the coal-fired power plants, large (metal and non-metal processing) industries, and brick kilns located outside the urban airshed and seasonal open biomass fires.

Keywords: PM2.5; Particulate pollution; Raipur; Durg-Bhilai; India; WRF-CAMx; Emissions inventory; Dispersion modeling; Source apportionment


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