Chien-Ping Chou1,2, Tien-Chin Chang1, Chun-Hsiang Chiu 3, Hsing-Cheng Hsi 4

Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan
Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, Taiwan

Received: May 13, 2018
Revised: September 15, 2018
Accepted: October 9, 2018
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Cite this article:
Chou, C.P., Chang, T.C., Chiu, C.H. and Hsi, H.C. (2018). Mercury Speciation and Mass Distribution of Cement Production Process in Taiwan. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 2801-2812.


  • Hg speciation and distribution in two cement plants at Taiwan were studied.
  • Hg concentrations at raw mill EP input were the highest among all sampling points.
  • > 86.5% of Hg at raw mill EP input was particle-bound Hg.
  • Hg0 was the major gaseous Hg species emitted from cement plants.
  • Gaseous Hg emission was 23.94 and 48.90 µg Nm–3 for Plants 1 and 2, respectively.


In this study, the mercury (Hg) speciation and mass distribution at two cement plants located in northern and eastern Taiwan were investigated. Gaseous Hg in the kiln flue gas was sampled by the Ontario Hydro method, and the solid samples were collected to analyze the Hg mass balance. The total Hg concentrations in the raw mill electrostatic precipitator (ESP) input of the two plants were 155.70 and 64.62 µg Nm–3, respectively, which were higher than those at any other sampling point. Approximately 97.5 and 86.5% of the Hg in the raw mill ESP input at Plants 1 and 2, respectively, was particle-bound. Elemental Hg was the major gaseous Hg species emitted into the atmosphere from these two cement plants, accounting for 56.4 to 98.2% of the total Hg in the flue gas. The total Hg mass output was calculated to be 61.374 and 204.596 mg-Hg per metric ton-clinker (mg ton–1) for cement Plants 1 and 2, respectively. The Hg emission factors for Plants 1 and 2 were thus 0.059 and 0.196 g-Hg per metric ton-cement (g ton–1), respectively. These results improve our understanding of Hg emissions from cement plants in Taiwan and provide useful information for selecting Hg control technology.

Keywords: Cement plant; Precalciner production; Mercury speciation; Mercury distribution; Atmospheric mercury.


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