Kazuichi Hayakawa 1, Ning Tang1,2, Edward G. Nagato1, Akira Toriba2, Kazuma Aoki3


Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-8555, Japan



Received: May 2, 2017
Revised: September 30, 2018
Accepted: October 9, 2018
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.05.0153 

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Cite this article:
Hayakawa, K., Tang, N., Nagato, E.G., Toriba, A. and Aoki, K. (2019). Identification of Long-range Transported Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 1252-1258. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.05.0153


HIGHLIGHTS

  • Snow layers collected at Mt. Tateyama were separated into particulate and soluble fractions.
  • PAHs transported from China were identified using HPLC-fluorescence detection.
  • Distributions of PAHs and inorganic ions differed by snow layer.
  • PAHs with 5 and 6 rings were almost all in the particulate fraction.
  • PAHs with 4 rings were at higher or equal concentrations in the soluble fraction.

ABSTRACT


Snow layers, L-I to -III, collected from the wall of a snow pit at Murododaira on Mt. Tateyama, Japan, were melted and filtered into soluble (S) and particulate (P) fractions by a glass filter (pore size: 0.5 µm). The total concentration of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was highest in L-I. In this layer, PAHs with 5–6 rings, which exist mainly in particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere, were almost completely in the P-fraction. PAHs with 4 rings, which exist in both the particle and the gas phase in the atmosphere, exhibited higher or equal concentrations in the S-fraction. Finally, non-sea salt SO42−, which exists as sulfur oxides in the atmosphere, was filtered into the S-fraction. The air mass for L-I, traced via back trajectory, passed through northeastern and central China. These results suggest that PAHs transported from China to Japan precipitated in snow at Mt. Tateyama. In the melted snow, PM-associated PAHs were primarily in the P-fraction, but lower molecular-weight PAHs were partly in the S-fraction. Gas-phase PAHs were also found in the S-fraction. Furthermore, the high concentration of non-sea salt Ca2+ in the S-fraction of L-I implies the presence of Asian Dust.


Keywords: Snow; Long-range transported particulate matter; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Inorganic ion; Mt. Tateyama.

 


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