Polina Maciejczyk1, Lan Jin2, Jing-Shiang Hwang3, Xinbiao Guo4, Mianhua Zhong2, George Thurston2, Qingshan Qu2, Junfeng Zhang5, Qinghua Sun6, Lung-Chi Chen 2

Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida 33711, USA
Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Occupational and Environmental Health Science, Peking University School of Public Health, Haidan District, Beijing 100191, China
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
College of Public Health, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA

Received: November 15, 2017
Revised: February 5, 2018
Accepted: February 10, 2018
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.11.0504  

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Cite this article:
Maciejczyk, P., Jin, L., Hwang, J.S., Guo, X., Zhong, M., Thurston, G., Qu, Q., Zhang, J., Sun, Q. and Chen, L.C. (2018). Association of Cardiovascular Responses in Mice with Source-apportioned PM2.5 Air Pollution in Beijing. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 1839-1852. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.11.0504


  • PM2.5 and its chemical components in Beijing from July–December 2008 were collected.
  • Sources were traffic soil, mixed industrial, oil combustion, secondary sulfate.
  • Olympic regulations decreased traffic re-suspended soil PM, but not other sources.
  • Acute changes in heart rate were best explained by sources, not PM2.5 concentration.
  • Chronic effects were decreased heart rate, but increased heart rate variability.



In this study, factor analysis and mass regression were used to identify four fine particulate matter sources and estimate their contributions to the ambient air pollution in Beijing. The identified sources were traffic re-suspended soil, mixed industrial sources, oil combustion, and secondary sulfate. The estimated source contributions were then introduced into two models as exposure variables to explore the relationships between cardiovascular responses in mice and PM exposures. We observed that PM2.5 has a small negative acute effect on heart rate, but the individual source factors showed much more significant effects. Traffic re-suspended soil had the most significant effect on heart rate, with a positive contribution on the day of exposure and a negative one on day lag 1. Acute heart rate variability outcomes were better explained by the total PM2.5 than by the source components. Chronic effects were observed as a decreased heart rate but an increased number of heart rate variability outcomes.

Keywords: Fine particulate matter; Factor analysis; Heart rate change; Olympics.


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